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Topic - War and Terrorism
Write the Research paper on topic war and terrorism.
Solution - War and Terrorism
War and terrorism are considered as the collapse of the humankind, and the kind of act that seems to undermine as well as sideline the values that exists at the core of the civil rights, along with the lawful system that protects it. In several ways, terrorism and wars are similar as they both involve the acts of extreme hostility, while being inspired by the strategic, ideological or political ends. Both these elements are inflicted by one group of individuals with the intent on another. The consequences of either of the two are terrible for the population. Apart from the means used or the extent of the violence, war and terrorism are considered as different aspects, with respect to international laws (Council of Europe, 2017). The following discussion shall focus on the aspects of war and terrorism and explore the impact these elements have on the general population or society at large.
It is difficult to define the concept of war as there are several aspects that distinguish it from other kinds of violence (Tepperman and Curtis, 2015). War is fundamentally a condition of armed struggle amongst varied governments, nations, societies or informal paramilitary assemblages like militias, insurgents and mercenaries. It is fundamentally categorised by the extensive level of hostility, annihilation, violence and mortality, with the use of regular or irregular kind of military forces. There are varied kinds of wars that exists globally and through the world history (Abubakar, Tillmann, and Banerjee, 2015). These majorly include chemical warfare, cold war, biological war, insurgency, cyberwar, nuclear war, unconventional war, total war, information war and asymmetric war. The deadliest wars of the human history include the World War II, the Mongol Conquests, and Paraguayan War.
Terrorism can be defined as the unlawful utilisation of intimidation and violence, particularly against the civilians, that are initiated in the pursuit of political aims. Terrorism is difficult to be distinguished from other kinds of violent crimes and political violence. The aim of terrorism is to coerce or intimidate the government or its citizen in furthering certain social or political objectives. Terrorism is of two types, namely, domestic terrorism and international terrorism (Austin Texas, 2019). Domestic terrorism is fundamentally based as well as executed within the United States by its own citizens, without the need for any kind of foreign direction. On the other hand, international terrorism involves connection with the foreign governments or groups, which transcends the national boundaries (Austin Texas, 2019).
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Impact of War and Terrorism on Society
War has varied impact on the population and the society. For instance, during World war II, there was decline in the birth rate that anticipated to have resulted in a deficit of population of over 20 million individuals. War is very dangerous for the civilians(Hegdes, 2003). Between the period of 1900 till 1990, more than 43 million armed forces had perished in the different wars, apart from the 62 million citizens. In World War II, over 34 million civilians had deceased, with about 1 million deaths in North Korea, hundreds of thousands in South Korea and nearly 40,000 in Vietnam. It has been estimated that the wars in the period of 1990s have comprised for about 75 to 90 per cent of the total civilian deaths, of all the war deaths (Hegdes, 2003).
Terrorism, on the other hand, has been responsible for several deaths over the past many years. Within the past decade, terrorism has been responsible for an average of 21,000 deaths across the world, every year. The death toll of the global population, due to terrorism, in the past decade, have ranged from 8,000 deaths in 2010 to 44,000 deaths in 2014 (Ritchie, Hasell, Appel, and Roser, 2019). In the year 2017, terrorism has been the reason for about 0.05 per cent of the global deaths. In majority of the nations, terrorism accounts for lower than 0.01 per cent of mortality, however, in nations of high conflict, this rises to several per cent. Terrorism has been identified to be highly geographically focused, with about 95 per cent of the deaths occurred in 2017, have taken place in South Asia, the Middle East, and Africa (Ritchie, Hasell, Appel, and Roser, 2019). The media coverage of terrorism is at times highly disproportionate with respect to its frequency or the share of deaths.
During war, the civilians encounter extreme distress and mortality associated experiences that severely affects their entire life. During war, the civilians are bombed, shot, starved, raped, and at times, driven away from their native places and homes (Hegdes, 2003). It has been estimated that during the World War II, about 135,000 civilians were dead within two days, due to a firebombing that took place in Dresden. Within the next week, 17,800 individuals were dead within 22 minutes in Pforzheim, Germany (Hegdes, 2003). After the three-year long war of Leningrad, in Russia, about 600,000 private citizen were left alive, where the initial population had been 2.5 million. This has been so as 800,000 individuals were dead, while 100,000 were recruited into the Red Army, while one million were evacuated. In the year 2003, throughout the Iraqi War, almost half of the entire population of 1.3 million private citizen, residing in Basra, were entombed for several days, without food or water, and at a temperature of more than 100 degrees (Hegdes, 2003).
War leads to the rise of refugees, who are civilians that have lost their fundamental human rights of residence and as a result of the same are left homeless, and without any identity of nationality. Refugees have high mortality rates, owing primarily to infectious diseases and malnutrition (Hegdes, 2003). Moreover, the survivors of the war experience post traumatic stress disorder that is associated with the trauma accompanied by the war (Tepperman and Curtis, 2015). Children are also highly affected by the wars and it has been estimated that more than 2 million children had died in wars during the 1990s. Over twenty million children got displaced from their homes during 2001 war, while several were forced into prostitutions. Thrice the number of children is rendered seriously injured or disabled due to war, while a large percentage of the forced children contract AIDS from prostitution (Hegdes, 2003). Moreover, the children that are born to mother who are forced to prostitution or rape, become the outcasts of the society. It has been estimated that more than 300,000 children are being used as child soldiers and they have been fighting in over 40 nations across the world (Tepperman and Curtis, 2015).
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Presently, the US government has declared four nations as leading conflicted zones of terrorism and these include Cuba, Syria, Sudan and Iran (Tepperman and Curtis, 2015). It has been estimated that about 26,445 individuals had died from terrorism, across the world, in the year 2017 (Ritchie, Hasell, Appel, and Roser, 2019). The varying number of deaths due to terrorism across the world as well as some selected nations such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Israel, Iraq, Syria and India, can be depicted with the help of the following illustration.
Of the global deaths of 26,445 that took place in 2017 due to terrorism, about 95 per cent of them had taken place in South Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Lower than 2 per cent of the deaths had taken place in the Americas, Europe and Oceania amalgamated. This can be better depicted with the help of the following illustration.
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The residents of different regions present varied concerns associated with the extent of terrorism and its associated outcomes. It has been determined that more than 52 per cent of the US respondents exhibit concern regarding terrorism, over 90 per cent of respondents from nations such as Haiti, Malaysia, Georgia, Tunisia and Rwanda had presented fear of terrorism (Ritchie, Hasell, Appel, and Roser, 2019). However, the respondents from regions such as Netherlands, only 10 per cent of the respondent had presented concerns regarding terrorism. Similar responses were also acquired from the respondents from Sweden and New Zealand (22 per cent, each), and Argentina (26 per cent) (Ritchie, Hasell, Appel, and Roser, 2019). Therefore, it can be stated that terrorism has varied impact of the population of different geographical locations and therefore, the exact extent to which terrorism affects any population, remains highly unknown.
As per the discussion that has been presented above, it is evident that both war and terrorism have severe impact on the overall global population as well as the society. The violence is associated with these elements have the greatest influence on the outcome that is associated with them. Therefore, it is important that suitable measures be taken to avoid wars, while preventing or minimising the impact of terrorism and apprehending the individuals or groups associated with terrorism, to prevent its further dispersion. Measures such as arms reduction, redistribution of the economic assets and involvement of the International Peacekeeping Bodies, are expected to be the solution for war and conflicts.
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