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Use of Electronic Wireless Capacitive Sensor In The Irrigation Assignment Help

Write the case study about the use of electronic wireless capactive sensor in the irrigation of the main crops in the United Arab Emirates. 

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Introduction

In the present report, agricultural sector of United Arab Emirates (UAE) and the related use of smart wireless irrigation technique has been discussed. The agricultural sector is by far considered as the highest user of water all over the world, which accounts for around 70 % of entire water withdrawals. Due to scarcity of water, only tomato and cucumber are the primary vegetable crops of UAE farms. According to reports, In UAE 43.7% of water comes from groundwater source and 41.4% comes from desalinated water and the remaining 14.5% and 0.4% are from treated water and surface water respectively. It is reported that, agricultural sector consumes 60% of water, while industrial sector consumes 9% and the remaining 31% is consumed by household use. Therefore, it is highly essential for the nation to wisely and effectively use its water in agricultural sector, to meet the water requirement of growing population (Harun, Kassim, Mat, & Ramli, 2015).

Use of wireless capacitive sensor

UAE have incorporated several steps to determine the exact amount of crop water demand and improve irrigation practices. One of such alternative irrigation practice is the use of wireless self-operating irrigation system. This system is highly efficient and accurate in determining soil water content, temperature and crop water need. The system can be controlled and managed through wireless sensor networks and Bluetooth. The control panel of the system is linked to the GPS unit, and sensor network radio. Further the soil moisture sensor and the control software application are interlinked with each other to record instantaneous data related to input and output. The sensor can determine soil moisture content reading the field capacity and welting point for every 10 cm. This information is then transferred to connected computer through the help of satellite (Harun, Kassim, Mat, & Ramli, 2015). The sensor has a rapid response time and can take several readings in only one second. Probe of the sensor is inserted into the soil at multiple depths, especially in a horizontal position at the root zone. Further, these probes are connected to a monitoring system (computer) along with a radio frequency transmitter. This sensor is small in size, waterproof in nature and consumes minimum power. This sensor is specifically designed to become sensitive to small changes in water content, does not corrode over time and remains unaffected from salinity of water. The sensors are designed to calculate volumetric water content of the soil with respect to soil bulk permittivity (dielectric constant). The dielectric constant increases with an increase in soil water content. For this purpose, UAE government and Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority have organised and conducted a pilot study in Abu Dhabi to compare between traditional irrigation system and the smart irrigation technology (wireless soil moisture sensing system) (Al Shrouf, Alhammadi, Alkaabi, Alderai, Zaki, Al Hajeri, 2017). The study continued for two long years with two different crops that is tomato and cucumber. The study revealed that with the use of smart technology farmers can know when there is requirement for irrigation water to be applied, preventing crop stress. Moreover, with the help of computerized scheduling of the irrigation one can easily store transfer and access data. The stored data can be even used to predict crop evapotranspiration (Zhao, Li, Yang, & Li, 2018). Thus, the study revealed that with use of smart irrigation technology, there is significant reduction in irrigation water requirement and a increase in crop yield.

Problems associated with the use of wireless capacitive sensor

In this framework, despite of using the wireless capactive sensor there exists still some challenges in maintaining water level and supporting agricultural production. The issue includes untrained farmers, lack of knowledge and skill to use the system in the farm. One of the main concern is to convince the farmers of UAE to adopt this new technology and make them understand its importance. Further, the data loggers used in the electronic wireless capactive sensor to determine the soil moisture are very expensive and it also requires periodic maintenance. Hence, the overall cost of purchase and maintenance of this system is very high for a farmer.

Possible Solution

In conjunction to increase the use of wireless irrigation system, the UAE government needs to motivate and encourage farmers. For this purpose, the government can raise awareness through campaigns, provide free educational programs, training sessions, and practical support in collaboration with the Farmer Service Centre. These programmes will help them to get a clear knowledge and benefits of implementing the technology in farming. Once the farmers understand and agree to adopt the technology in their irrigation procedure, then they will be provided with web based application on their mobile phone to receive specific information details such as., daily irrigation requirements for the crops, crop yield, and water content. Moreover, government should take the responsibility to provide each farmer a smart irrigation system, since it is very expensive for them to afford. In addition to this, government and food control authority of UAE should work in line to develop more sustainable and economic approach towards irrigation practices (Sui, & Baggard, 2015).

Conclusion

In conclusion, the wireless irrigation technology not only help the farmers to gain profit but also increases the sustainability of agriculture in UAE. The wireless technology helps in avoiding any future damage of crops from surplus water usage. Hence, developing a sustainable agricultural sector is based on balanced implementation of effective agricultural practices and suitable irrigation system (Zhao, Li, Yang, & Li, 2018).

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