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The present report is based on the tourism industry of Australia. Being the world's smallest continent and largest island, it is considered as the world’s best paradise for any traveller. It is a complete package of coral reefs, red earthed national parks, scorching deserts, rainforests and stunning beaches that gives maximum return for the investment to tourist. Tourism industry in Australia contributes a significant level of economic activity which is approximately A$7.5 billion to its national economy, as well as provides employment opportunities within the country (Abascal et al., 2016, p.1354). Based on the current report, Australia is placed as the tenth largest tourism market in the world. Sydney is one of the most visited tourist destination in Australia. One of the top attraction in Sydney is the “Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House”. The location of this structure is stunning, as it is surrounded by water on it three sides and the south side is surrounded by Botanical Garden.

In the present report the focus is based on the contemporary tourism and accommodation issues of this destination that accounts for the factor responsible for tourist attraction and measures to be taken care for future growth of tourism attraction. According to the reports of national visitor survey, it is revealed that 9.2 million visitors spent almost 24 million nights in Sydney. Hence, the analysis presented here include prospect related to transport development, accommodation development, visitors experience, and associated risk or crisis situation. Explanation of these features are discussed in relevance to Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House destination and supported by statistical analysis.

Contemporary tourism and accommodation issues

In the present section, the discussion will be focused on critical examination of the contemporary issues relevant to the tourism destination - Sydney Harbour Bridge and Opera House (SHBOH).

Tourist Market potential

Tourism Australia is the government body responsible for attracting international tourists to spend their leisure time, for business events, and offer the unique experiences to visitors from world-wide location. SHBOH is mainly designed for two types of target market within the developed framework Tourism Australia, viz., i) experience seekers, ii) holiday maker.  The Experience Seekers group includes people from various age groups, geographic locations, and income levels. This target market is highly inclined towards the prevailing offers and discounted prices as they are likely to stay for longer period (Banks et al., 2016, p.358). On the other hand, the holiday maker group includes mostly the youth segment, newly married couples and family segment. Tourism Australia spends almost A$ 200 million in a year for promoting and marketing tourism, whereas the contribution from SHBOH include aquatic and coastal themed footage and midnight fireworks, to attract people from all over the world.

The major “global target market” for SHBOH includes people from USA, UK, and China. The forecast market value of these countries by the year 2025 will worth more than A$6 billion among which A$1.8 is estimated for SHBOH. Some other “potential target market” includes Canada, France Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand and Singapore. The forecasted market value by Australia tourism for these countries is A$2 billion out of which, A0.4 billion is estimated based on tourism attraction for SHBOH. Indonesia and India (South East Asia) are the “least target market”, having an expected market value of A$1.6 billion, however, SHBOH being their favourite destination according to Tourism Research Australia (TRA) and contributes to $0.6 billion (Freeman, 2016).

According to the international visitor survey report, 2017, China continues to remain as the leading visiting country to SHBOH with a visitation record of up to 0.5 million along with a spending of A$6.5 billion. Similarly, New Zealand, UK, and US holds a visitation record of 0.7 million, 219000 and 336000 respectively. On an average, 8.4 million tourists visited to SHBOH having 271 million night stay and A$ 17.2 billion of spending. The latest iteration advertised by Tourism Australia is “There is nothing like Australia” which shows SHBOH among the portrayed six key features of Australia (Freeman, 2017).

Transport development

In recent years, the international carriers were operated with an increased seat of 22.9 million in the Australian ports. The major tourist for Australia come from Europe and Southeast Asia through various international and domestic airline networks. Majority of the flights from Asian region acts as the connecting link (stoppage) for tourists traveling to Australia. From the extreme distant locations, the major airports connecting include Bangkok, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Changi international airports. According to survey reports, passengers from Singapore, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, and Malaysia contributes around 38.3% of the total international passenger seats available to Australia (Zhang, 2015, p.22).

With a positive sharing agreement with Qantas, Swiss, Eithad, Lufthansa, and Air France airlines, there has been significant increase the passenger numbers from Germany, France and other location from Asia as well. Based on the reports of Australia tourism, London-Singapore-Sydney is considered as the busiest airlines route from United States to Australia (Duval, 2016). For most of the European countries the entire traffic is carried out by the full service carriers where some Asian countries and United Arab Emirates (UAE) serves as the stop-over country. Other than this government also supports the department of Immigration and Border Protection for streamlining the Visa process of tourists and benefits visitor’s economy. Recently an improvement is made in the form of trial for online visa lodgement to Australia for the citizens of India, Indonesia and China that aims to bring more tourist and visitors to contribute towards tourism economy (Tan & Tsui, 2017). Apart from this, Sydney city also provides the facility of automobile for tourists which helps in increasing the number of day trips as well as travel.  SHBOH in this regard also facilitate online selling of tickets, including day trips, sightseeing tours, and hop-on hop off buses that offers transport facility to the customers (Freeman, 2016, p.44).

Accommodation development

Accommodation is considered as the base of tourism industry as it provides location for tourists to rest and revive during their visit. Thus, the growth and development of accommodation sector plays a vital role in overall success of a tourism destination. The tourism accommodation Australia (TAA) manages the interest and requirements of the major hotels, serviced Apartments, and motels (Guachalla, 2017, p.440). It is mainly focused towards the growth and development of Australia's accommodation sector within the tourism industry. In response to growth in number of international visitors, the Australian Hotel industry invested over A$8 billion for transforming and improving the accommodation sector, among which the investment on SHBOH is more than A$2 billion, according to report of 2015 (Scerri, 2016, p. 437).

It would be appropriate to state that the accommodation section of SHBOH is strong and can manage the increased demand for rooms for both International as well as domestic visitors. Based on the report of TAA, more than 2407 rooms were constructed last year, whereas the total accommodation is more than 33,000 rooms in Sydney, as the destination is the central business district in Australia. Importantly, A$2.3 billion of approved hotel projects and A$ 1.9 billions of proposed Hotel projects is to be built in Sydney in next three years. According to Airbnb new listings, there are 9610 apartments, 505 private rooms and 644 shared rooms available for tourists in the near locality of SHBOH (Guachalla, 2017, p.444). Similarly, Airbnb also lists out 6723 sharing accommodation and 5982 residential accommodations in Sydney. Here, the central agency known as Australian accommodation monitor (AAM) takes the charge to measure the performance of TAA (Guachalla, 2017).

Some of the recent development in hotel industry in the near location of SHBOH includes, the Marriott International's Luxury Collection Hobart (128 rooms) and the IHG’s Holiday Inn Sydney Central (305 rooms). Crown Towers Perth is one of the costly and expensive hotel in Australia featuring 500 guest room, Villas, along with entertainment and dining facilities. By the end of 2019, it is expected to open around 6500 new room major tourist location, which can be considered as an advantageous and promoting factor to attract tourist to SHBOH (Pabel, 2017, p.149).

Crisis and risk management

Some of the major risks and crisis associated with Australian tourism in the past are unsuccessful campaigns, legal breaches, currency fluctuation, reduced funding, dispute between departments, ineffective partnership, fraud, and safety incidents. Thus, a proper risk management is essential for the destination manager to implement effective and successful decisions. Common measures include collaboration with district police and offering helpline numbers for customers, to prevent any negative situation (Pabel, 2017, p.143).

Some of the major risk management situations include:  event planning, insurance cover, financial decisions and resource allocation. The destination manager must make appropriate decisions regarding event management, resource and time management, as well as partnership with local firms supplying catering, housekeeping, and other related services. Apart from a better decision making process this also helps in reducing the costly and unexpected surprises (Freeman, 2017).  The risk management process of Australia tourism policy includes: i) establishing context, ii) identifying risks, iii) analysing risks, iv) evaluating risks and v) treating risks (Pearson, 2018). Proper documentation and sharing the information with appropriate authority in this regard is one of the appropriate responsibility of destination manager to minimize risk in the tourism event.  

Social media influence

The use of social media as online networking tool has developed a new era in the Australia tourism economy. SHBOH uses social media as a platform to attract people, which includes various networking sites (Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram), internet forums, consumer review sites (Glassdoor), content community sites (Wix website and Google site), and location-based social media (Trip Advisor).

This is evident from the remarkable success of Tourism Australia campaign on Facebook, having more than 6 million followers for SHBOH across the world. Based on the reports of a survey undertaken by Tourism Australia it was found that 72 percent of Facebook followers used this page for the purpose of holiday inspiration, while 16 percent of followers (liked the post) booked travel tickets on the basis of this post. With a spirit of promoting their tourism, Australians posted almost 30,000 images and stories of their country on their webpage named “Nothing like Australia” and came out as one of the most successful public generated promotion ever (De Jong & Wu, 2018. p.350). Another instance includes the post of one of the most controversially censored image of Big Baz - the kangaroo (attraction of Sydney) which received more than 1.1 million likes on social media platform of Tourism Australia. According to experts, there is a huge difference in economic budget from paid advertising campaigns to cost-effective and personalised channels on internet. After the immense success of on Facebook, SHBOH also decided to use the same technique in Google+, and Instagram page. Meanwhile, the Australian National Online strategy committee have designed tutorial package “Tourism e-kit” which discusses the use of Facebook, YouTube, Pinterest, Foursquare, and Twitter in tourism.

Visitor experience development

Visitors’ experience for SHBOH is highly dependent on the local people, tour operators, accommodation and hospitality service, retail business, state government and the environmental groups. A negative visitor experience can lead to a bad trip experience for the tourist as well as can pull-off the future customers. This experience will be further described through word-of-mouth or online blogs, creating an early indication for the upcoming risk. Experience development is considered as the creative opportunity for SHBOH to create positive experience for both first-time guests as well as repeat visitors. It is the sole responsibility of tourist department of the country to explore the experience and ratings of visitors and considering SHBOH as one of the prime location for continous improvement. In this regard, SHBOH also introduced Visitor Experience Enhancement Program which aims at improving customer experience (Dwyer, 2017). A total of A$1.1 million funding have been invested in the projects related only to SHBOH, which in turn aims to enhance visitor experience. SHBOH has proved to be an amazing experience for all of its customers because of its unique view and provisions like dining restaurant, theatres, concert Hall, Cinema and an exhibition room.

Additionally, Tourism Australia is working with state government agencies and other local bodies social support fishing, nature watching and food tourism initiative to promote the tourism prospect at SHBOH. These events in the Marine Park will help in creating positive visitors experience and attracting more numbers of tourists. Australia has also introduced Experience Development Strategy (EDS) to facilitate the destination development, planning, and marketing. According to Guachalla et al (2017), tourism is a product bought by customer, while they remember the tourism experience only. SHBOH believes in offering an individual tourist with commodities, products and services for delivering engaging and compelling experience. For instance, the commodity, product, and service could be grapes, bottled wine and wine tastings are some of the attractive activities that SHBOH always focus to improve customer experience (Mulley & Moutou, 2015, pp.120). These pleasant return-of-value for the visitor is of greater economic value because of low cost investment. SHBOH believes in guest hospitality instead of customer service, and describes GUEST as - greeting, understanding, efficiency, special treatment and thankfulness.


In summary, the contribution of SHBOH to the tourism industry has become extremely important for the GDP and overall economy of Australia as its annual industry revenue is expected to grow by 7.5 percent over the last 5 years and will reach A$ 84.3 billion by 2024. SHBOH offers a wide variety of tourist activities for both International as well as domestic visitors along with attractive memories from botanical garden and midnight fireworks. The report also discusses about transportation development which is considered as the part of the tourism system and aims to bring tourists to their attractive destinations, and Australia is not an exception from it. Australia works with the Department of Regional and infrastructure development to improve their air services and increase aviation connectivity. However, there still exists plenty of scope for the growth in the numbers of tourists from these locations by improving and increasing the frequency of transportation service, which is discussed in this report.  Recent development in hotel industry in the near location of SHBOH includes, the Marriott International's Luxury Collection Hobart, Airbnb collected statistics, and AAM responsibility in terms of assessment for number of establishments, room occupancy rate, number of rooms, revenue per available room, and average daily room rate are included in this report.

Because of its attractive and unique architecture, it has been placed in the list of UNESCO world heritage site and is considered as one of the masterpiece and greatest architectural icons of the century. However, it is also important for the destination manager to ensure that tourist are not engaged in pollution, harming the local community or making any damage to the architecture of SHBOH, which is analysed based on the current report. From the usage of social media, it is learned that Facebook is considered as one of the most powerful media to reach customer service.

Overall, the tourism research Australia is constantly conducting surveys on the visitor’s origin country, time spent and purpose of visit such that strategic framework for SHBOH can be improved to a significant level. The survey results depict that the number of tourists have been double over the past two years and that it will further expand customary attraction in near future.


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