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State and Local Policies Assignment Help

Describe the issue as it is faced by both state and local policymakers, including the influence of lobbyists and public interest groups.

Explain how the issue is currently being addressed in different states across the country.

Identify and explain the moral and ethical arguments on both sides of the issue in an unbiased manner, as well as safety concerns expressed by law enforcement and child protective services.

Discuss how public sector morals and ethics vary among demographics locally, statewide, and across the country.

Propose a solution to this issue that you in the role of policymaker would be willing to defend publicly and explain your decision-making process.

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Introduction

This research report describes the morals and ethical values, which will be beneficial for the individual or group for considering what is right or wrong. Ethical value is the principles of conduct governing a single individual of a group of people. The moral philosophy of the ethics recommends right and wrong concepts of conduct. Further, in this assessment, the codes of ethics and codes of conduct are described that provide a clear view about the duties or appropriate practice for an individual or association. Moral, values and ethics are defines who we are and what we believe. Many factors can affect our beliefs such as culture, religion and many other things. Professional ethics are discussed, which is important in governing the behaviour of the individual in the workplace. It provides certain rules and regulations for individuals or groups on how to act with other people and institutions in such an environment.  
Morals and Ethics 

A moral refers to the values of the individual or group of individuals that will help consider what is correct or incorrect. While Ethics refers to the principles that help the individuals or groups to determine what is accurate or inaccurate. Morals are directed by cultural and social norms while ethics are controlled by legal and professional norms. Morals are discussed in the form of general rules and statements and Ethics are abstract. 
Ethics

Ethics is the principles in which the individual or group evaluates their behaviour as accurate or inaccurate. It is determined as the well-based values of accurate or inaccurate and describes what people have to do. The ethics can be categorized into two categories descriptive and normative ethics. Descriptive ethics is a practical analysis of people's moral beliefs, whereas normative ethics portrays the standards of right and wrong for the acts. The law is the basic supporter of ethical behaviour (Adams 2019). The law sets a minimum standard for ethical conduct, as it is necessary to understand that not every legal act means to be ethical, and the illegal activity does not need to be considered immoral. 
Codes of Conduct and Codes of Ethics

Codes of conduct are determined as the set of policies for determining the duties or appropriate practice for an individual or association. It is defined as the principles, standards, values or regulations of behaviour, which directs the procedures of decisions making for an organization. Several national and international agencies have developed the codes of ethics or codes of conduct for staffs. It adds to the wellbeing of its most important stakeholders and values the rights affected by the procedures. International codes of conduct facilitate in maintaining the criminal laws and statutes the national public sector. The adoption of the international code of conduct for public officials by the United Nations General Assembly took place in 1996. 
There are many provisions in the code of conduct; the principles of the codes states that every public official needs to carry out their duties following the law. The public officials must serve loyally for the local or regional authority, and it is necessary for them to be honest, fair and proficient to perform their duties with their ability with fairness, understanding, and skills (Becker 2018). The code also declares that in the act of their duties, the public official cannot perform randomly to the disadvantage of any individual or group.
Professional ethics 
Professional ethics refers to the principles that are essential to govern the behavior of an individual in the workplace (Frederickson & Walling, 2019). It provides rules for individuals or groups on how to act with other people and organization in such an environment. An ethical principle determines all the professional codes of conduct, which vary depending on different professions. Professional codes of conduct provide the following benefits
It helps build confidence in the profession’s trustworthiness among the public.
It provides great transparency and certainty about how the client’s affairs will be handled.
They provide a supporting framework for the members of the profession to resist pressure to act inappropriately and help in making acceptable decisions. 
It provides a common understanding of acceptable practice for the profession that helps to build equality and allocates for legitimate disciplinary procedures.
Child protective services

CPS or Child Protective Services is a governmental agency, which is takes care of the child maltreatment reports; it also helps in determining the child abuse and provides assurance of safe environment for the child. These agencies help the families to find the proper support service to protect their children and provide assistance in children’s well being. When the CPS report is made, it is important to provide information about the child and the abuse incidents as much as possible. After the report formation, the CPS agency needs to investigate about the accusation of abuse (Chaiyachati et al., 2018). The rule varies according to the circumstances and depends on the investigation report provided by the CPS agency. Therefore, the agency needs to investigate each case very minutely. The investigation process of CPS initiates by assembling all the information related to the case. After the data accumulation, applicable laws and regulations provide outline the investigative report. Many jurisdictions have the advocacy centers for children that will be helpful to provide guidance for children's healthcare. These advocacy centers provide an integrative approach for the investigation of child abuse cases, which involves the forensic reports, therapeutic interventions, case management, victim support and advocacy. 
Public sector morals and ethics

Public sector morals and ethics involve a broad area, as values and morals vary between cultures. The American Society for Public Administration implements a code of ethics in 1984, but other associations adopted such codes before (Hejka-Ekins 2019). The codes of ethics for public administration identify that the administrators are not just implementers of policy. The cases of mismanagement, corruption can affect the public perception of the authority and quality of government procedures. Thus, it is essential to improve the ethical performance of government employees that is elementary to the legitimacy of democratic governance. 
Ethics and ethical principles facilitate people to take better actions, and it assists people to evaluate the decisions taken by others. Ethical principles help in making choices on how to formulate the function of public sector in a better way. It assists in better understanding the duties of public sector and assist how it should interrelate and interface with the elected citizens, civil society, and governments, as well as private businesses and domestic corporations. The public sector activities consist of governing urban planning, social protection of the health of the people. There are certain differences between public sector ethics and private sector ethics (Menzel 2019). There is a huge difference in the functions of private and publics sectors, the aim of the Private Corporation or business is to make money, whereas the public sector performs the functions for the society as a whole. The public service ethics is based on the five fundamental aspects; fairness, responsibility, efficiency, and transparency.
Solution to the unethical behaviour in public sector

There can be many ethical issues in public services and it mainly occurs in public organizations (Yoder & Denhardt, 2019). In every public organization, there may be problems arising from the lack of indiscipline among the civil services workers, laziness at work, mis utilization of public funds, fraudulent practices and their offensive attitude towards their work.
Thus, it is necessary to promote ethical behavior in private organizations to maintain better ethical values. Some approaches are discussed below for promoting ethical behavior.
Sanctions and punishments: It is necessary to punish both individuals and organizations that violate business and societal ethics. If the lawbreakers are not punished, it will encourage other people who have the potential to commit a crime (Valentine & Godkin, 2019). There should be a strict sanction so that it will discourage and control unethical behavior and other people will obey the rules, instructions, customs and laws. 
Moral campaign: This aspect is based on developing the disciplined behavior and practices of ethical values among public sectors. Conducting a moral campaign is essential to aware people of ethical values and behavior. The unethical conduct should be emphasized for the proper solution of the misbehavior behavior in private organizations. 
Professional development of ethical codes: It is necessary to practice the code of ethics for every private and governmental organization to restore and earn respectability from the outside world.
Conclusion

This research paper discussed the moral and ethical values in every governmental and public sector. The issue that may arise in the public sector and clarification about the unethical behaviour is mentioned in the above research. The understanding between right and wrong is a better foundation for practicing good ethics and morals. The code of conduct and code of ethics is argued to explain the principles and rules about ethical behaviour. It is essential to promote strict punishment for both the individuals and association that breach the business and societal ethics. The unethical behaviour towards the organization may arise from the lack of indiscipline among workers, misuse of public funds and fraudulent practice. Thus, it is necessary to punish offenders, so that the other people may obey the instructions.
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