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Spacecraft Antenna Systems


Question: Write a 4-5 page paper on spacecraft antenna systems.

Answer: Introduction: In this report we generally discus about the spacecraft antenna and how it is working in the communication process and what are the advantages of the satellite communication along with the various process measurement. The antenna is basically divided into two types that are transmitting antennas and receiving antennas. The transmitting antenna is support to transmit the signal from source to destination and the receiving antenna is used to receive from various resources. The antenna having the more properties that is characteristics of direction and mode of the transmission this will be discussed in the reciprocity theorem. The antenna used in the satellite communication that is divided into the earth station antenna and the space craft antenna. The spacecraft antenna provides the communication between the satellites and various earth stations also(Reddy, 2006).

Transmitting and Receiving antenna: The transmitting and receiving the signal from the various resources is done by the antenna that is evaluated by the each process. The antenna acting as a radiator and the power amplifier is generating eh power resources PTW. Here the transmitter transmits the signal that is PTto the feeder the PRADis radiator that is used to radiate the various signals in the process.

Transmitting And Receiving Antenna.jpg

The signal PS is radiated through the antenna into the various satellite or earth station communication process that is evaluated with receiving the signal process. 

The next process is the receiver the signal PR from the various wave processes like TEM. That is recorded and feed into the input signal of the receiver system process. The PRECis feed into the PINthat is received by the receiver. The power feeder is used to avoid the power losses during the transmission process that is evaluated through the signal receiving process(A. Imbriale, 2012).


Reciprocity theorem for antenna: The reciprocity theorem is used to evaluate the signal receiving strength in the communication process that is analysed in the antenna state consider with I that is induced in another antenna B to indicate the transmit mode for the information transmission process. The same current is indicating into the signal of the antenna A for the reciprocity process. 

In this process the main consequences is the antenna has the directional path that is the transmitting and receiving the information in any direction path. The process evaluation is considered with the process of transmitting signal in the same direction. Suppose it is transmit the more energy in the same path means the receiving antenna is also need to handle the more energy. This may lead to the problem of the information loss process. This indicates that various analysis of the signal transmitting with the planned manner. So while operating the receiving mode it is consider with the direction path(D. Minoli, 2015).

Coordinate process: In the consequences is consider with the above discussion is analysed with the coordinate system for the managing above issues. The necessary process is done for the above consequence is coordinate system. This system is illustrated with the spherical coordinate system for the common use.

Coordinate Process.jpg

The above diagram show that the antenna is origin with the coordinate along with the distant point P and in this the coordinates are used for the process is r, theta and pie. The radius vector r is considered for the analysis of the radiation process and also the magnitude pie is measure with the distance between the point P and the antenna. The angle is measure with the x axis plane for the along with the xy plane in the projection of radiation r.

The angle theta is measured with the z axis plane with respect to the r value. In this the coordinates is form with the right hand set process. This is shown as the clock wise representation process along with positive value measurement in the x axis and y axis. The right hand ide process is association with the polarization of radio waves in the various mode processes.

Radiated field process: From the above analysis the radiation is play the important process of the evaluation in the communication process. The antenna has the three electromagnetic field components around it for the radiation purpose this may place like near field and far field paces for the effective communication process this may generate the effective communication of the various analysis process. The field strength is increase when the distance of the three components is less if the distance of the three components of the increases this field strength is decreases.(Reddy, 2006)

Power Flux Density: The process of the satellite communication link is evaluated by the power flux density of the radio wave quantity. This is analysed with the antenna placed in the center of the sphere and transmitting the signal into the surrounding of the area with effective manner. The power form the antenna is measure with the surface of the sphere along to the various analyses.

The measurement of the power transmit on the surface is calculating with the unit per surface area along to the various signal processing to the receiver.


Pattern analysis: The radiation pattern analysis is done with the gain of the antenna along to the necessary process communication. It produces the directional properties of the antenna and that is evaluated with the ration of the signal processing along with the transmitter.

g(Θ, Φ) = [G(Θ, Φ)/G]

The pattern analysis is done with the above measurement process along to the necessary properties. The above formula shows the calculation of the radiation pattern. The reference of the fixed distance r the gain will change according to the pie and theta value. The most of the satellite communication is done with the three dimensional plot of the radiation strategy for the gain of the maximum power density(L. Marcellini, 2011).

Antenna Type: The Half wave dipole is the basic one of the basic antenna type that is provides the support of the effective satellite communication. The radiation happens in the all the directions except the dipole path this measurement is consider with the directional property. The radiation of the xy plane is considered with the various measurements along with the coordinate values. 

The properties of the half wave dipole is

• Impedance - 75?

• Directivity - 2,15 dB

• Aperture with effective - 0.14

The efficiency of the antenna is analysed with the different categories along to the various measurement

Signal processing into the measurement analysis.

g(Θ) = [cos2 ({Π/2} cosΘ)/sin2Θ]

The above analysis is process with measurement of the angle with xy plane along to the necessary angle transmission process. 

Horn Antennas: It is the type of the aperture antenna and this will be support to transmit of the smooth transmission for the various analysis modes. It uses the directed radiation of the satellite communication process for the various analysis processes. It is illuminate with the direct process of the data along to the necessary communication that is directed to the effective communication. 

In these two types of antenna is used for the communication process for the betterment process. that is

• Conical type horn antenna

• Pyramidal horn antenna

The both type is support to the radiation level and the effective communication process among the earth station or satellite communication process (B. R. Elbert, 2014).

Conclusion: In this report we analyse the spacecraft antenna process and measurement of the various radiation level of the signal and the types of antenna used for the communication process along to the necessary arrangements. The antenna having the more properties that are characteristics of direction and mode of the transmission this will be discussed in the reciprocity theorem. This information analysis is provide the necessary support of the effective communication of the satellite process.


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