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Sociological Journal Article

SOC1160 Introduction to Sociology, Lethbridge College, Canada


Gender (Chapter 10): How does discrimination based on sex, gender or gender identification remain a significant social problem in Canada?

Introduction: Hazards in the form of discriminatory stigmas are particularly stereotypes and projected towards gender based communities in Canada. The present journal presents a study over diverse cases that have been prevalent at varied time spheres with greater risks towards peer violence. These are felt at home, school and communities. The discriminations that mostly succumb to Canadian teenagers are revolving around the sexual orientation and the gender identity they carry. There is self report surveys tried to be generated in this regard so that effective evaluation and outcomes are possible to be yielded. The abuses are concentrated around comparisons of bisexual and heterosexual orientate articles on along with gay and heterosexual.

Question 1: Summarize the sociological journal article:

• What was the purpose of the article?

• What are the main points of the author's argument?

Answer: The experiences of discriminations that are encompassed by the youth sections are likely to provide effective case studies (Logie et al. 2011). Troy being distanced from his mother at the age of 5 was affected with sheer negligence and abusive activities. There were plenty of foster houses that Troy was shifted from and to. Troy's encounter with a boy of his same age led them towards sexual experience for which they were separated in different foster houses. Getting bullied and harassed in classrooms, in school campuses and employment areas in later encounter lead the youth towards violent experiences. Some tend to run away from such situations and some take up anti social pathways to combat them. On being identified as gay, lesbian or bisexual within society the lives get even tougher.

Deep religious and conservative parenting by foster caregivers was found as remedies to deviate Troy from such sexual orientations. People identified to belong to sexual minority groups are often subjected with the negative messages where stereotyping, out casting and social prejudices are common discriminatory actions taken against them. Bullying practices, protests and arguments with gays, lesbians and sexual minority classes were quite commonly witnessed (Veltman & Chaimowitz, 2014). Canadian population experiences health related stigma along with discrimination depending upon sexual orientation. There is wide range of health disparities experienced in case of LGB people identified within Canada. Sexual experiences shared with same sex are considered as equivalent to crimes in Canada. Violence in the account of anxiety, anger and harassment are evidenced within Canada. Families are possible to become one of the costs and direct targets of getting subjected to stigma. The cultural and social environment of the gay, lesbian and bisexuals lead them to a life of hostility and distress. There are however, limitations drawn from each of the case studies discussed within the journal of discrimination based on sexual orientation within Canadian context. Usually the selection of cases and research sample on the basis of convenient sampling allows the LGB youth to be left out from the general population comprising sexual minority (Saewyc et al. 2006). The maltreatment that families face with regard to sexual orientations of the youth are often subjected to victimization and extreme discrimination.


Question 2: Critically analyze the sociological journal article:

• Clearly describe the research orientation being used to make the author's argument (positivist, interpretive, critical).

• What is the level of analysis (e.g. macro/micro) that the author uses?

• What sociological approach has the author taken (e.g. social-conflict, structural-functionalist, symbolic-interactionist)?

• What are the limitations of the author's approach? Be sure to clearly describe both the strengths and weaknesses of your article.

• Give your perspective on the research. Be sure to clearly describe your point of view and your reasons for that position.

Answer: Gender stereotype theory: Gender stereotype is one essential sexual harassment theory that brings into consideration the sociological angle of thinking into being. On being identified belonging from sexual minority groups there is a natural trend of categorizing individuals adhering to stereotypes. There are economic powers that are found to socially exclude the different groups of people (D'Augelli et al. 2002). The subordination of the gays, lesbians and bisexuals are mostly prevalent at a level of violence against the women of the society. There are gender stereotypes perpetuated on the basis of economic power inflows. The sexual harassments are tried to be restricted in certain manners to subordinate the women in the society. Canada is particularly under those targets to be victimized at varied social and cultural levels. The standards and remedies for enforcements shall be theoretically conceptualized. Prohibition from sexual harassment shall be under workplace effectiveness. There are laws stipulated for sexual harassment for influencing the social and culturally driven activities.

Anti-Discriminatory Practice Theories: The discriminatory practices taken place within households as well as at employment or other social occasions shall get entitled to be restricted. Stricter laws and regulations will impose strong laws and standards that will help people refrain from bullying and performing discriminatory activities. There are traditional and conventional views which require to be regulated under legislative standards. There are needs for effective understanding (Snelgrove et al. 2012). Diverse theorists and philosophers project different avenues in creating awareness and alarm to restrict the violence against sexual minorities in a large amount. The legal infringements are likely to be stepping beyond the civil rights and sexual harassments shall therefore get restrained.


Question 3: Connect the article with your piece of media:

• Demonstrate your understanding of the social issue represented in your research question, article, and piece of media.

• How does your piece of media relate to your research question? Use your sociological imagination.

• What assumptions are being made? Is there an implied understanding of how the social world should operate in your piece of media?

Answer: Keeping in course with the discriminatory practices across different sexual orientation as identified as lesbians, gays, or bisexuals, there are quite a lot of debates emerging in. the Canadian House of Commons argued in front of the court which gained extremely high media coverage and significance. The media coverage campaigned not in favor but against the gay existence and gay marriages. Be it gay, lesbian or bisexual (LGB) in nature they are equally identified as burdens or stigma to the overall society. The social disapproval gets implied from the media representation put forth in front of Canadian house (Loutfy et al. 2012). The disapproval is not merely limited to words or research but is made actual to create discriminatory experiences by involving sexual minorities. In case of sexual orientation and gender diversion from any normal and conventional course are likely to be subjected to discrimination in terms of employment factors, housing issues and social or nationwide interactive processes. There are hate crimes ranging wide spectrums causing elevated damages to even reach the extent of murder.

Media essentially brings people to notice under the eventful happenings. Violence and discrimination against sexual minorities of gays, lesbians and bisexuals shall be controlled when subjected to social and cultural arena. Much of media led campaigns and television programs have caught people's attention to render justice towards those sexually minority groups which are victimized and stereotypically marginalized at varied social and cultural scales. Gender neutrality is tried to be brought into being under specific legal standards where claims against sex based harassments shall be acted upon. There are needs for proper concerns raised against such specific issues to restrict the violent attacks upon people in an inevitable manner (Steele et al. 2017). The media in these cases through social media platforms or television have managed to gain support in support and favor of sexual minorities. The same sex marriage and social acceptance among such activities are immensely possible to be inflicted. There are sexually triggering communities that tend to bind with traditional and conventional norms.


Conclusion: It is understand that literature and contextual theories based on sexual harassments shall be enabling through media sources to impact upon creation of specific standards (O'Brien et al. 2016). The European countries have levied down specific sexual harassment programs to be overcome so that instances of violence are possibly reduced in an effective manner. The dignity of the person is tried to be judged with their workplace caliber and creating them as central concern. There are needs for theoretical developments through gender neutral standards which are tried to be focused under media intervention so that sexual harassments in Canada are restricted in a prompt and strong manner.

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