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Assignment - Unit 3 Science & Materials
Task - Prepare reports on how to improve sustainability and awareness of the environmental impact of construction activities within the construction process.
Answer - Introduction
Before constructing any building the measurement of the significant materials along with other calculation for wall and accommodation design need to be focused by a contractor. The entire study emphasized on the role of a design build technician in the context of constructing a perfect building. However, the paper keeps its eye over the development of sustainable practice at the time of building construction. Therefore, the paper evaluates a complete report making by expressing the process for improving sustainability along with the awareness of environmental impact of activities related to construction on the process of construction.
Task 1 - LO1 Review health and safety regulations and legislation associated with the storage, handling and use of materials on a construction site.
a) Explain the main procedures involved in the safe storage of construction materials and construction waste on site.
b) Some materials need special handling either due to their weight or to the effect they may have on health, outline the procedures involved with a material containing dangerous dust and a second where weight is an issue.
c) Outline how a risk assement is conducted on the excavation of a service trench and compare this with the risks of working on scaffolding. Prepare a risk assessment for cutting a concrete paving slab and show how these procedures help improve the standard of Health and Safety in modern construction sites.
d) Explain how many different health and safety regulations such as Constructin Design Management and other recent developments in health and safety regulations apply to a site activity with which you are familiar helping to ensure a safe handling and use of the materials used.
Answer - Review of regulations and legislation associated with health and safety
P1. Explanation of regulation impact
This section helps in understanding how regulation based on health and safety impacts on the storage, utilization and maintenance of the construction element. As the study emphasized on the sustainability practice in respect to building construction, it focused on two significant aspects under the health and safety regulation supporting sustainability practice including
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Procedure involved with safe storage construction and construction waste
It has been found that in the building construction some materials need to be stored safely in the context of avoiding some accident. Moreover, it also found that the materials also need to be stored safely in the context of avoiding material waste (Hong et al. 2015). Based on the materials below mentioned process need to be followed
- Utilization of unbreakable and double contained packaging
- Fall protection
- Eye and face protection
- Aerial lifts
Handing process of dangerous materials
In the context of handling dangerous material due to heavy weight some process also can be followed such as
- Fall protector
- Utilization of steel-toed safety shoes
- Adoption of lifting techniques
M1. Utilization of risk assessment
It has been found that the cutting of concrete blocks holds some significant risks which can impacts negatively on the environment and affects directly on the sustainability practice. Therefore, a construction authority must asses below mentioned risk before cutting and concrete block and implements strategy to avoid such kind of hazardous to develop sustainability practice (Liu and Lin, 2016).
D1. Discussion on multiple legislation and regulation application
This section helps in understanding about the different type of health and safety regulation and legislation by which the storage of construction materials can be done along with proper maintenance of safe handling
Health and safety legislation and regulation
Contractor safety management process
Construction design management
Material storage management
Table 2: Health and safety regulation and legislation
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Task 2 - LO2 Discuss the environmental and sustainability factors which can impact on and influence the material choices for a construction project.
(a) Explain material environmental profiling and life cycle assessment in a civil engineering context. Show how this is influencing the choice of materials for a specific construction project with which you might be familiar or where a case study is available.
(b) Discuss the benefits of product declaration and environmental certification in establishing a good environmental profile either for a construction project that you are famillar with or a case study that has been published.
(c) Produce a waste management plan for a given project, taking into account a typical range of relevant waste materials.
(d) Give examples of sustainable practices and considerations for material choice which have contributed to good environmental ratings for a typical building. (For this part it is suggested that you consult the information available from the BRE
Answer - Discussion on sustainability and environmental factors
P2. Explanation of material environmental profiling
In civil engineering context, environmental profiling helps in identifying the environmental hazardous which can affect on the building and negatively influence human comfort. On the other hand life cycle assessment defines for the processing, extraction along with utilization and maintenance of the building materials (Gurcanli et al. 2015). As an example, the rain force can damage wall quality of a building; therefore, the construction material must be chosen by processing, extracting core facts of rain force prevention.
P3. Benefits Discussion
It has been found that there are three significant benefits of the product declaration and environmental certification which helps to support the concept of sustainable practice. The benefits mainly includes
- Clearance of product lifecycle
- Environmental sustainability assurance
- Trust and faith accumulation of the construction market (Marsono and Balasbaneh, 2015)
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M2. Waste management plan production
Based on the given project the waste management plan would be like
Waste management plan
Responsible person for waste managing
Design build technician
Goals and objective
To improve sustainability practice
The goal is to reduce extra resources utilization for waste reduction
Waste type estimation
Construction materials including concrete or silica
Target setting for waste reduction
Reuse method description
Implementation of health and safety regulation and legislation
Table 3: Waste management plan
D2. Illustration of sustainable practices
The sustainable practices along with the significant considerations in material choice help in improving environmental rating of building completion. Sustainable practices in the context of material choosing helps construction authority to reduce extra materials which supports the concept of waste reduction (Eastman, 2018). On the other hand, it has also been found that it helps in sustainable practices helps to improve the environment of building construction which helps in maintain health and safety legislation.
Task 3 - LO3 Present material choices for a given building using performance properties, experimental data, sustainability and environmental consideration.
(a) Taking the results from tests that you have conducted in the laboratory, show that different materials are suitable for use in the building structural framework, or in provision of insulation.
(b) Discuss these results in terms of the material properties and regulatory requirements.
(c) Show how testing procedures are designed to overcome the variation inherent in construction materials and how statistical methods are used to investigate results that are very different from those of most of the other values in the sample.
(d) The choice of building materials for the outside of the building are to be selected for their performance and environmental characteristics. Suggest suitable materials and state clearly why this choice has been made.
(e) Examine the choice of materials for the columns in the building referring to Euler's buckling formula to show how the main considerations that are needed to prevent buckling. Give an example of the testing procedure that would be used to check that the material would be able to support a structure.
(f) Show how the use of appropriate materials and other sustainable practices and design work contribute to an improved environmental rating.
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Answer - Material choice presentation
P4. Relevant testing procedure result
In the course of the study, such relevant testing procedure results are explained according to Euler's bucking formula. WP 120 test stand is used to demonstrate these relevant bulking hindrances. In some cases, sudden occurrence of bulking is found when particular load limit is exceeded. With the help of Euler's bucking formula, bulking is addressed as stability issues. The materials which have been applied, the length of the products used along with the diameter of the particular product is considered as the influential factors as this testing results reveals (Lin and Liu, 2015). In this relevance it must be mentioned that rigidity can be traced for clamping the end portion.
P5. Unexpected result highlighting
In order to meet the learning outcomes, this study has been evaluating the unexpected results occurred in the time of project implementation with the help of Euler's bucking formula. It has been found that critical load is considered as the greatest load which is not responsible to cause buckling (deflection). The column can deflect laterally if such loads are greater than the actual critical load. The assigned project has been revealed that the column may fail due to buckling if extra load is put on beyond the critical loads (Monteer, 2018). In a nutshell, it can be said that such critical loads creates unstable equilibrium.
P6. Construction material selection
The construction material selection can be regulated through many factors. According to the assigned project, these influential factors must have been kept in mind as stated below.
- Cost of the materials
- Portable or ease of transportation
- Fire resisting capacity
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M3. Assessment of effects and comparison of behavior and performance
In order to meet the learning outcomes, structural materials that can be used to accomplish the same purpose have been classified accordingly based on their performance and behavior in these particular aspects.
- Construction materials which can be obtained naturally
- Rock and wood
- Brick and block
Task 4 - LO4 Evaluate the performance of a given building in respect of its human comfort requirements.
(a) State clearly what are the five main requirements for human comfort within the building under construction.
(b) For each of the main requirements in a) above indicate what characteristics are needed in the materials used in the structure to ensure human comfort with the minimum of environmental disturbance.
(c) There are several office areas within this multi-use building, show what charctersitics of materials and passive design choices used for this area which will help to promote human comfort.
(d) Estimate the rate in kilowatts at which heat needs to be generated in the building to maintain an inside temperature of 200C when the outside temperature is at 00C assuming that the windows make up 30% of the outside wall area. That the walls are insulated to a U value of 0.2,watts m-2 0C-1 the roof and floor to a U value of 0.23 watts m-2 0C-1 and the windows (triple glazed have a U value of 0.9 watts m-2 0C-1.
(e) If the building is designed for 150 occupants some of whom are sitting most of the time but some are quite active assume that the average need for fresh air averages out at 8 litres per second per person. Calculate how much heat would be lost supplying this amount of cold fresh air when the outside air is at 00C assuming that the specific heat capacity of the air is 1kJm-3 oC-1.
(f) One of the spaces inside the building is used for meetings and can hold up to 200 people if needed. The dimensions of this space are 17m x 30mx8m high. The walls of this are 30% glass with an absorption coefficient of (double glazing with 10mm gap) at 500Hz = 0.03, the walls of acoustic timber wall panelling 0.42, the floor as carpeted over concrete is 0.25 and the ceiling is covered with perforated plaster board with an absorption coefficient of 0.85. Calculate the reverberation time of this space.
(g) Discuss what is menat by passive and active design. Show how passive and active design methods can reduce the energy used by the occupants of the building, minimise the use of non-renewable materials, cut down on water use and minimise the footprint of the building.
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Answer - Performance evaluation
P7. Strategy of material selection
This section helps in defining material selection strategy in respect to the human comfort within building accommodation. Therefore, it can be understood that it helps in identifying the significant aspects which need to be focused at the time of constructing any building. It has been found that there are total five requirement of human comfort exist which need to be focused by the contractor or building designing to improve sustainability (Oka et al. 2017). The five significant requirement of human comfort mainly includes
Five comfort requirement
Thermal comfort in architecture
Indoor air quality
Table 3: Comfort requirement
P8. Material identification
Based on Balancing of indoor environment comfort all contractors must emphasize on the utilization of active and passive designing strategy in the context of constructing buildings. Moreover, the maintenance of above mentioned requirement helps to maintain indoor environment comfort of a building by providing thermal comfort which make the people relaxed within room in spite of having high or low temperature outside the room (Monteer, 2018). Moreover, the leakage control and noise protector helps in enjoying a soothing environment. Therefore, it can be said that it helps in maintain sustainability of building construction by supporting healthy environment in building construction.
M4. Performance calculation
10,000 sunlight and 0.01 in moon light
0 degree centigrade outside and 20 degree centigrade inside
Table 4: Calculation value
D3. Evaluation of passive or active strategy utilization
This section helps in understanding about the importance of active and passive design utilization in respect of supporting resources waste protection. It has been found that passive design utilization helps in minimizing temperature fluctuation along with the improvement of indoor air quality (Eastman, 2018). On the other hand, active design helps in preventing any issue of electricity passing during project construction. Therefore, it can be understood that both active and passive design support health and safety regulation and legislation in respect to sustainability practice.
Based on the above mentioned information related to building construction, it can be concluded that every contractor must focus on the health and safety regulation for sustainable development. Moreover, it can also be summarized that to maintain sustainability practice contractor need to focus on the development environment sustainability, proper resource utilization and human safety.
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