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Operant and Classical Conditioning Assignment
Compare and contrast operant vs. classical conditioning
Conditioning is the process of learning due to some external trigger or stimulus that results in human behaviour or response (De Houwer, 2018). In a behavioural study, it is one of the important parts for psychology study of humans.
Classical conditioning generally refers to the learning procedure and there is a two stimulus such as biologically potent stimulus and it mainly paired with a previously neutral stimulus. Ivan Pavlov first experiments this behaviour with a dog so that it is also known as Pavlovian conditioning.
On the other hand Operant conditioning also refers to a learning process through punishment or reward for the behaviour. B.F Skinner is known as the father of Operant Conditioning. It is also known as instrumental conditioning (Erskine, Bus, Herb & Schaefer, 2018). Operant conditioning mainly changes the behaviour of animals by using various consequences such as punishment or reinforcement. Both positive and negative punishment and reinforcement generally influence the behaviour of animals.
In classical conditioning, the learning process generally depends on the association of two stimuli and in Operant conditioning the learning process usually depends on the consequences for a response. The classical conditioning process is involuntary and mainly based on reflexive behaviour but the Operant condition is totally a voluntary behaviour (De Houwer, 2018). The stimulus controls the behaviour or response. Other side punishment or reinforcement mainly controls Operant conditioning. In the case of classical conditioning, the stimulus is well defined but the conditioned stimulus is not well defined in case of the operant condition. Experimenter controls the unconditioned stimulus for classical conditioning and for Operant the stimulus are controlled by organisms.
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Part 1: Describe at least one personal experience in which you were classically conditioned. Be sure to identify the UCS, NS (neutral stimulus), CS, UCR and CR in your example.
The classical conditioning is refers to the learning process due to both biological and neutral stimulus. For example, my senior colleague regularly reminds me of lunch in the office at 2 pm. One day he reminds me of the lunchtime at 12:30 pm and I even don't check the time but felt hungry when he reminds me. There are two major stimuli generally worked here, one is my hunger and another one is my friend's reminder. My hunger is mainly paired with my friend's reminder and that generally creates triggers the response. The unconditional stimulus is the biological potent stimulus and the conditioned stimulus are the neutral stimulus (NS) for that reason if these combined together and change the response or behaviour (Erskine, Bus, Herb & Schaefer, 2018). In classical condition, a neutral stimulus cannot create a response and neutral stimulus needs to be paired with an unconditional stimulus to create a response. In this case, my hunger is the biologically potent stimulus and my friend's reminder is a conditional stimulus these combines together to form the conditioned responses. An Unconditional stimulus (US) generally evoke a response without any organism that is present in the previous learning. Unconditional Stimulus (UCS) generally creates unconditional response without having any past experiences (Eder, Krishna & Van Dessel, 2019). The conditioned response is the learned response and my senior colleague remind me for the lunch every otherwise he doesn't talk with me during working time for that reason I learned from the previous experience and my hunger (the unconditional stimulus) generally evoke me to prepare for lunch before time.
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Part 2: Describe at least one personal experience for each of the following types of operant conditioning (consequences for behavior) - a) positive reinforcement b) negative reinforcement c) positive punishment and d) negative punishment. Be sure to identify the behavior, the consequence as well as the resulting effect on the behavior.
Solution: The operant conditioning is another important learning Process controlled by individual's response or stimulus that change the behaviour. For Example, A marketing organization provides me with cash reward if I fulfil the target and company will provide me less pressure during work. At the same time, the organization also deducts money from the salary for my poor performance. At the same time, the manager also criticized me for poor performance. In this case, the reward is the positive reinforcement and it generally increases the number of sales. Positive reinforcement refers to giving somewhat motivation after behaviour (Monaco et al., 2018). It also increases the chances that the behaviour will continue. Reduce the work pressure is negative reinforcement and it encouraged me to improve my performance further to avoid the work pressure in the organization. Negative reinforcement mainly indicates the deduction and something taking away to increase the behaviour (organizational sales).
On the other hand, the deduction of money from salary is the negative punishment and that will also change the behaviour that means it will also increase the sales performance of the employee. Negative punishment signifies the taking away of some motivational factor to change the behaviour (Eder, Krishna & Van Dessel, 2019). In this example, criticize is the positive punishment and it generally demotivated me and discouraged my behaviours. Both the Punishment and reinforcement are important to change the overall behaviour of the employee and it will increase organizational sales volume further that means the behaviour will continue to occur.
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