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ITC544 IT Fundamentals - Charles Sturt University

Question 1: Explain why we need a 3-way handshake in TCP? Why not just 2-way?

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is the protocol for controlling the data transmission to achieve reliable communication. The protocol establishes connection in between source and destination and maintains the connection until the two ends finishes its transmission. The protocol is used for bidirectional communication. Both ends can send and receive data simultaneously.

The below diagram illustrates the working principle of TCP handshake


Host P sends the random sequence numbers to Host Q for synchronizing with Host Q. The data is transmitted as SYN data packet to Host Q. The Host Q receives the SYN packet and host Q open new connection by transmitting their own random sequence number to host P. Host Q sends the Acknowledgement and synchronization over single packet as SYN/ACK. Host P receives the packet and sends acknowledgement through ACK packet.

Before actual transmission starts in between host P and host Q three data packets are transmitted to establish connection. This TCP connection is called as 3-way-handshake.

The below diagram illustrates the example for TCP 3-way-handshake


The client sends the random sequence number 456 to server to synchronize with the server. It shows the client open new connection for transmitting data packets to server. The server receives the sequence number and server opens new connection by sending the random sequence number to client. Now it indicates the server is ready to transmit data packets to client. In the given example, the server receives the sequence number 456 and generates the random sequence number 123. The server synchronizes with client by sending the packet SYN/ACK. The client sends the ACK packet with the sequence number 124.

The sequence number is used to identify the packet loss and duplicate packets.

The data packets are transmitted to/from client and server. This is called as full duplex connection. To transmit data packet in both directions 3-way handshake protocol is preferred.

Not 2-way handshake

The 2-way handshake protocol is used for unidirectional communication. The data packets are transmitted from one direction. Not both directions.

TCP protocol is used for bidirectional communication. Two way handshake in TCP protocol is not preferable.


Question 2: What is RAD? List an advantage and a disadvantage of using RAD


Rapid Application Development is one way of software development in short period time. It does not consume more time for planning and analysis. It uses the concept called prototyping to develop the product. Through the prototyping customer can see the working model very soon. The alteration of the software product is easy before the final product developed. In RAD model, the large project is divided into small projects. The model makes use of the existing templates, codes, tools etc.


RAD model includes the following phases

Business modelling

The information of business oriented sources is collected through this model. The information is used for data processing to help for the industry.

Data Modelling
The data is modelled into data objects from the required information are collected from the business modelling. The data objects are useful for the business.

Process modelling
The process is the set of task to work with data objects. The data objects are transformed to acquire useful information to meet the objective of the business.

Application generation
The application is generated from the various process models through the automation tools

Testing and turnover
Each prototype is tested individually. The changes and updates are carried out in each prototype.

Advantages of RAD
• It consumes short duration to develop software product
• Flexibility due to reusable of components
• Manual effort is minimum due to reuse of code, template etc
• Customer feedback acquired initially and updates the software
• Issues are minimum due to prototyping nature
• Required less human resources
• Increase productivity of software products
• Flexible to adopt changes and

• RAD model is not applicable for small scale projects
• When technical risk increases in application development, RAD model cannot be adopted
• Reuse of components and code is not suitable for all applications
• The issues and steps for the software development is documented in RAD model for future purpose
• Skilled developers only can work with prototype and reuse the components
The product development begins with the prototype then actual development, scalability cannot be achieved in RAD model.


Question 3: Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of agile methods.


Agile method
It is one of the software development method belongs to incremental type. The software product is developed in incremental basis. The incremental software product is completely tested for quality.

Agile Method provide the team more flexible in development and provides motivation as they could see the outcome of every delivery at end of each sprint. This will ensure that product developed is inline with customer requirements.

Early detection of any defects can be found at the sprint testing and make the product more shippable to the customer. This method make the team for more collaborative approach of work. There is no delay from one team to other team and no blaming game.

Since every day there is a Daily stand up meeting where the scrum master can remove the impediment and make the team to work towards the sprint goal.

More transparency is create with stakeholders and sponsor as they are knowing the every sprint deliverables. This could be used for their product marketing and improvements and making them more confidence with the development team.

Business focus and customer focus are clearly articulated to the team and work towards achieving goal in a time bound manner.

Early testing of the requirements and product will make the product more reliable and provides good performance and highly available across various conditions.

If there is any wrong decision on the product strategy, then it could easily be realigned with the current strategy to make the successful delivery.

Ability to adopt to the changes is easily can be done in Agile with Product owner performing good backlog planning.

Frequently sprint meeting and reviews would require additional resources from the project which need to be accounted during the project estimation.

Lack of less documentation is commonly being understood by the agile team that there is no documentation required. Due to this at the later stage of the product to implement any change request it will take more time to understand and develop for the new changes.

Agile team need have to spend more energy and spend more interaction with all of team, which might slow down the development.

Design thinking process or Research work need to avoid this agile method as this would make the designer and developers into a time constraint situation.

Well experience developer and programmer are needed to take a strong decision during the sprint. If there is delay then it could impact the current development.

Customer product owner need to on the top the project, if he is not having clear vision of the end goals, then the project would be totally distracted and lot of rework would happen.


Question 4: What is scope creep in software development? Explain three ways to deal with scope creep.

Scope Creep in software Development refers the sudden increase in requirements that need to be implemented in next phase or current phase. These are not planned during the initial baseline. These requirements has been brought by customer at last minute changes.
It is a high risk in project management delivery. It could affect the cost and Quality. The addition of new scope within the planned time period and cost is the risk to delivery of the project. It could impact the current development plan and lead to the dissatisfaction of customer.

Dealing with Scope creep:
Requirement Walkthrough:

After developing the Functional requirement, these could be discussed and walkthrough shall be done with potential stakeholder and get the signoff. Anything which Is not specified in the document could be consider as "Out of Scope".

Change Management Process:

If any new requirements are provided, there shall be a Change Control Board to review the things and provide the impact analysis and get the effort estimate and cost and time delivery.

Later this could be discussed with customer with appropriate plan and showing the current plan and asking the stakeholder which shall be eliminated based on the current schedule and get the clear concurrence and approval for the revised scope. This could be added to the project plan.

In Agile method, this scope creep could be easily identified and can be fixed. As the product is being developed on iteration basis and frequently this is being share to the customer for feedback. This will make the customer for provocation if anything that is missed can be added to the next cycle based the Product backlog refinement approach.

The stakeholder is acceptable for scope swap work then it could accommodated in next sprint for the new scope. Also if the stakeholder is giving an option to swap the big work with small work or tasks then it could be controlled.

Agile product development is much less for scope creep and can be easily provided with minimum viable product (MVP) for customer satisfaction.


Question 5:
. AAA Medical Devices is a manufacturer of portable and wearable medical monitoring devices. They have developed a glucose monitor embedded in a wristband. The device is powered by body heat and senses glucose levels from minute quantities of perspiration. AAA wants to develop a Real-Time Glucose Monitoring (RTGM) system which will be using this device. AAA is planning to see the software to other health systems worldwide.

The software should be accessible on smartphones with Bluetooth capability.
The project has commenced, and you are appointed as a Systems Analyst to understand the requirements of the new system.

Think about the potential users of the system and discuss three fact-finding techniques that you would use to collect the requirements of the new system.

Requirement analysis is a critical step in product development. Understanding the customer needs and finding the current problem and making a document of it is responsibility of System Analyst.

Collecting the data and information for the project is not an easy process. There are various techniques available to collect the required data and process them for finding the fact and provide the input for development team.

This method will be used at the early part of the product development to ensure that all the required details are available for product design and development.

Various techniques of Fact Finding are 1.Perform the Sampling on the existing documentation
2. Perform the Market Research
3. Interviews
4.Provide the Questionnaire and collect the data
5. Provide the Prototype and get the feedback
6. Perform a Joint requirement planning
7. Visiting various customer location
Potential users of this product would be people who are at age group of 45-55, working in IT, Pharmacist, Doctors.
First method would be perform

1.Interviews: collect the data related to usage and how it could be really helpful. System Analyst will do face to face interview and get the data. He should plan the interview in advance and place the proper meeting schedule. The information collected will be more accurate reduces the misunderstanding about the product. System analyst will discuss with Doctor and person going to gym are the potential customers.

2.Questionnaires: System Analyst will prepare a 10 point question pattern and will provide to the users to get the question answered. The questions can be shared to the people who are spread across the various geographical location. These could be achieved by having a survey form shared and

The questions can be shared via email, or any hardcopies to the users to get the data. Questions could be in format where Yes/No, multiple choice based question, ratings and few of fields to gather person information. These questions will then be consolidated to get the outcome by using any BI tools

3.Prototype: System Analyst can provide a demo on prototype to the various people at various location. Provide a first-hand touch feel about the product and get the feedback directly and incorporate the improvements to the development.

Samples can be provided to the key reliable customer to get the usage feedback and provide the observations as quick as possible. If any failure in the part could be directly provided to the System analyst and necessary actions can be taken.It is better method for constant and capturing reliable requirements.

But building the initial proto would cost few dollars but then it could be a better method to acquire the data and information about the product.


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