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Assignment Task - Prepare a paper that critically discusses how organisations apply the strategic use of IS/IT to achieve IS/IT-enabled innovation.

Discuss at least 4 examples of the use of IS/IT for innovation. Highlight some success factors or some lessons learned (i.e., what went wrong?) for your examples. Discuss the impacts of internal factors (e.g., organizational, individual, and management factors) and external factors (e.g., market, industry, social, economic, technological and political/policy factors) on the success (or the failure) of IS/IT enabled innovation.

Answer - IS or IT innovation in J.W. Marriot

Introduction

In the present day, Information System or Information Technology can be considered as the most trending technology that is used by most of the organizations across the globe. In case of hospitality industry, IS or IT infrastructure can enable the management of the companies to make innovative strategies for marketing, which can lead the organizations towards success. This assignment is based on identifying the IS or IT innovations in J.W. Marriot, which is a renowned hospitality company across the globe for its services quality and hospitality. In order to explain the innovation more effectively, 4 different IT innovations of this company are highlighted, which will provide a detail insight about the operations of this company for retaining the loyalty of their customers. In addition, this assignment includes an explanation about the process through which this IS or IT innovations can be proved as the effective success factors of this company. Moreover, in order to make this statement more effective the impact of internal and external factors are also described below. Last part of this assignment includes some recommendations / suggestions through which J. W. Marriot can enhance its products and services quality more efficient.

Company background

Marriot International is one of the multinational organizations based on the country of America. The company was established in the year of 1927, and it has been offering services in the hospitality industry for more than 92 years. The company was founded by the J. Willard Marriott and presently the overall business is led by his son who is the executive chairperson of the company Bill Marriott. The company offers their customers with variety of services related to lodging and others. Marriot International is considered as the third largest hotel groups operating in more than 131 countries as well as territories around the globe. Other than this, the company has 30 brands along with properties over 7,003 (marriott.com, 2019). In the year of 2017, the Marriot International was regarded as one of the "Best Companies to Work For" and ranked at the 33th position within the list. The company has been increasing their facilities of offering all the around the globe and increasing their business profit at a marginal rate. In the year of 2018, the company has earned an operating income that amounted to be $2.36 billion and a net profit of $ 1.90 billion (marriott.com, 2019). Even, during the similar period Marriot International has earned a revenue margin of $20.75 billion. Apart from this, the company has increased their assets around over the years and valued to be $23.69 billion in the year of 2018. On the other hand, total equity, which is held by the company in the year of 2018 amount to be $2.22 billion. Based on the information gathered from the annual report of the company it has been found that 25% of the total share is held by the Marriot family itself. Even, in the present, employee count has increased to 176,000 during the period of 2018 (marriott.com, 2019).

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Example of IS or IT innovation

The following innovations of J.W. Marriot are taken into consideration-

Keeping teeth into the BRG (Best Rate Guarantee): It is very obvious that all the customers are not well aware about the offerings of a hotel until they come to know about the details of those offerings. For being an international organization, Marriot needs to be focused on advertising it's all the offerings (services and facilities for the customers) through online or offline media (hospitalitynet.org, 2019). For example, customers are not basically aware that Marriot is offering the similar price rate that OTAs is offerings for same room. Therefore, it is completely up to the managerial decisions of the company for continuously reinforcing the message that the direct booking is all of their best and efficient interest.

However, there is not sufficient guarantee for getting BRG over the website. It also has a very small impact over the average customers (who are not willing to take the advantages of these facilities). Presently, guests are all about convenience, therefore, the most effective tactic is to create own BRG within the booking engine, in where the OTA rate can provide the visitors best offer to book a room or to book some facilities offered by the company through online.

Subtle and video animation: Video presentation and subtle animation based advertisement can be considered as one of the most effective way for making the hotel's website more attractive and dynamic. Through video representation, Marriot can show all the facilities and key aspects of their offerings to their customers in an effective manner. It will provide the customers a proper prospective about the brand and sense of placing (hospitalitynet.org, 2019). However, there are several websites that is slow and lagging due to the usage of animation. Therefore, it is very critical for using smart based technologies for compressing a video instead of losing the quality and effectiveness, so that Marriot's page load times can be lighting fast and the users do not lose their interest.

Custom based interactive maps: it is a general but important statement for the hospitality based companies that their property is a part of the customers' experiences, as the customers are not just taking trips for staying and utilizing the facilities of a hotel. Therefore, they always want to be experienced the best of all (Outside properties) (hospitalitynet.org, 2019). The regional and local maps can be helpful to gain the interest of customers, as it will act as a tour guide and will be helpful to success their trip. It also enhances the brand image and value of the company as it is considered as an effective facility (offered by the company). On the other hand, through this process, Marriot offers its all features graphically (in a presentable manner) to their customer for gaining their loyalty towards the brand and corporate image.

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Instagram based API integration: There is another process for keeping the website up-to-date with fresh and experience-rich based content, which is considered as the Instagram API integration (hospitalitynet.org, 2019). In this case, one individual (especially customer) can power and leverage the social validation along with proper encouragement for the new bookings through showcasing the authentic guest experiences in their homepage directly that can provide proper prospective to the guests for taking an incentive look for directly booking.

DRC (Dynamic Rate Calendar): Marriot also make the advertisement easier for the customers in order to find the most suitable hotel (with available price rate) through generating a searching based feature, which can be called as DRC (Dynamic Rate Calculator) (hospitalitynet.org, 2019). It also offers proper value to the customers through making a proper process for vacation planning, which can show the travelers a monthly view of the offered rates in an effective manner, which also helps the customers to keep their savings. The key user experience enhancement procedure can make the customers more likely for staying over their websites and also make direct bookings.

Success factors

The term CSF (Critical Success Factor) can be considered as an important element, which is very essential for the MNC like Marriot in order to accomplish its mission and objectives. This is a very crucial factor or action, which can ensure the success of this company in an effective manner (umpenterprise.wordpress.com, 2019). The entire enhancement in case of using the electric vehicles by the customers, Marriot can apply environmental policies in order to grab the attention of environment conscious customers. Therefore, it can be stated that Marriot has the skills for opening more branches in other nations through enhancing their portfolio.

However, it can be said that J.W. Marriot needs to obey all the legal procedures and offer proper health services for their employees, which can hinder all the potential planning and strategies that Marriot needs to hope into their branches in order maintain all the rules and regulations. Marriot can be considered as a very expensive brand for competing with other hotels, which are much cheap for attracting their target audiences in an effective manner (umpenterprise.wordpress.com, 2019). On the other hand, Marriot is inside very expensive for setting the hotel chains; it might also limit their possible in order to enhance their corporate image if the customers are not willing to expand into very low cost markets.

The comfort of the room is important because people who use a hotel room want to keep the house comfortable and comfortable. Therefore, all three-room rooms receive a Marriott mark, as it is more exclusive and in line with the hotel brand. However, the speed of customer service and goodwill is an important factor in the customer experience. This competitive advantage focuses on turning travelers in terms of operational issues. As such, Marriott provides excellent customer service as staff can receive regular training. In addition, the location has a huge impact on the ability to attract customers. Such importance, insight, access and convenience attract the market. Traveling to a foreign country is difficult. The result is that a well-located hotel travels to unfamiliar places, which means both Marriott and Hyatt, both in the city, are eligible and business travelers increase their productivity by allowing for many hours of work. In the same way, Hilton and Hyatt are four points and Marriott is the smallest due to its small size, as it is only suitable for business travelers, with the disadvantage of sending guests with too many payments in competition.

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Impact of internal and external factors

Impact of External Factors (PEST Analysis)

Political Factors

The UK remains politically stable and the growing wealth of its people continues to provide a solid foundation for sustainable growth, boosting investor confidence in the hotel industry, leading to one Marriott investment. In addition, the development of the hotel has meant strong taxes for the government to enable foreign investors to obtain investment approval (Soehari, 2016). However, the unmatched nature and response of the host environment increases the risk and uncertainty that prevent companies with high levels of resources from entering the enterprise.

Economic Factors:

UK is a profitable economy in terms of technology and resources. However, as the economy rallies, problems arise because oil is unexpected and exchange rates fluctuate (Serafino et al., 2019). Therefore, increasing the inflation rate will have a negative impact on the purchasing power of customers and reduce the overall fluctuations in the hotel industry, which will cause Marriott problems. It has a significant impact on sales because customers can satisfy their physiological needs before others. Customers have a fixed budget when planning their holidays. Given the need to spend more than reducing flights, business travelers are also sluggish, as Internet meetings and conference calls are cheaper.

Social Factors:

Reaching a different environment has become a major concern for hotel managers, where employees provide personalized services to clients and try to protect them (Zaitseva et al., 2016). The demand for products comes not from the quality of services, but from the psychosocial factors that motivate people to live. Therefore, Marriott's skills are to give customers back.

Technological Factors:

The hotel industry continues to demand the use of advanced technologies and systems that are refined, innovative or innovative. Therefore, Marriott will significantly reduce the intermediaries' ability to lower the published hotel price. Brokers still use different types of aggressive digital marketing procedures for attracting the customers.

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Impact of Internal Factors (SWOT Analysis)

Strengths:

The greatest strength of the hotel chain is the strict adherence to the industry standards. The code of conduct has been adapted for senior management (Parsa and Narapareddy, 2015). Every employee is expected to follow him to the finest details. Many of these standards are said to be about intellectual ability. World presence: Marriott International is located in 122 countries worldwide, with more than 600 hotels and 1.2 million rooms (marriott.com, 2019).

Weaknesses:

With an overarching study of the expansion, Marriott began aggressively expanding the expansion, and now the empire has made it impossible to maintain service standards at all times, resulting in the brand being disbanded. In the case of too much emphasis on service standardization, Marriott is a system-driven business, and each employee receives a set of procedures for everything he or she does. Strict adherence to standards lowers staff morale.

Opportunities:

People around the world are now more open to luxury hotels when traveling with their families, and this is a trend that is experiencing the rapid growth of the economy: a time when hotel chains should not be missed. Marriott has appeared in the news for ongoing support from the LGBTQ community and special offers for same-sex couples. With such rising trends, it can be an exclusive opportunity for the hotel chain (Vij, 2016).

Threats:

The company has strong competition from brands such as Hilton, Novotel and others, and is constantly trying to become market leaders. The global recession is having a negative impact on the hotel and restaurant industry and many properties are being sold because they cannot make a profit.

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Recommendations

In order to gain more profit and to lead the company towards gaining competitive advantage more, Marriot needs to go through the following recommendations-

  • Shared Values - Culture of the company needs to be maintained
  • Style - The leadership style consists of the participative that can encourage all the workers' participation for the decision-making procedures
  • Staff - the morale of the employees are high as they need to feel an effective part of the company, which can also share the entire roll-out procedures
  • Skills - All the staffs are required to be trained in this hospitality industry for ensuring that the customers' services and quality based services, which are given the customers by the company.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that in order to gain success, it is very crucial for the company to maintain and adapt new technologies in its operations, as it can lead the company towards gaining more success in the market. IS or IT infrastructure can enable the management of the companies to make innovative strategies for marketing, which can lead the organizations towards success. From the above given examples, it can be stated that advertisement through websites and other online IS based media, it becomes much easier for the company to grab the attention of the customers in an effective manner.

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