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ICT103 Introduction to Data Communications - Murdoch University

Analyse and design a booking system that should be able to perform tasks like adding/creating new users, checking for available type of taxis in a particular area, calculating cost of the trip and processing all booking related transactions.


Modelling System Requirements


Apart from solving the existing operational challenges in the organizations, IT solutions will render services to deal with the future requirements and will make the organization to prepare for better outcomes and better effectiveness in operations. The effectiveness of the improvements will depend much over the efficiency and the versatility of the software applications employed. Hence analysis and design of the systems make up an important part of the efforts to achieve the objectives of the organization. The current organization is a new online company by name "Quick Cabs". The online company facilitates booking and paying for the taxis online. Customer can check for available vehicle choice for his preferred routes and can select the one as he likes. Also, he check the service charges for his intended route and to book the same along with the pick-up point. The objective of the current report is to analyze the requirements of the booking systems and to design the same.

Important Aspects of the case:

Overview of the system and the features

Quick Cabs Company is an online taxi booking systems and any one can access the taxi availability online and can book for the same directly from the organization website. At the time of booking the system will verify whether the user is the first time user or recurrent user. If he is first time using the services online his credentials will be asked by the system and will be stored in. If he is recurrent user, he will employ his login and pwd . These credentials will enable the system to look into the previous transaction history as well as the credentials of the user and this in turn will enable the system to take up a quick transaction.

Over view of the system requirements:

As a systems analyst there are several tasks to be undertaken in the design of the new system.
• At the outset, it is very much required for the system to have an option for adding or deleting the new users into the system.
• Also depending on the credentials of the location supplied by the user, system should able to check whether there are any taxis available In the location for taking up the hire services.
• Depending on the user supplied information on destination, system should verify the cost of the travel from the source to the destination and should work out the final price and display the same to the user for taking up subsequent actions.
• Further if the user confirmed the booking, the system should take up all the other transactions like taking up the payment from the user (either in the form of debit card, credit card, wallet money etc).
• System should receive the payment and should acknowledge the user of the payment information.
• User also should receive an online receipt of the payment to his preferred or stored email id.
• System will display the balance wallet money of the user, if the payment is done through the wallet money.
• Transaction code, status, time of transaction etc will be prepared and sent to the user for further record purpose and it will stay in the transaction history of the user.
• User must be having flexibility to either add new information on the booking or should able to change the information on the booking from time to time as per the requirements.
• System administrator should be having flexibility to add information about the new taxis, delete information on the taxis which are out of service or modify the information of the taxis as per the needs.
• Systems need to record link and keep all the information about the drivers using the taxis and the entire information will be stored online in the data base of the Quick Cabs online company repository.


Briefly describe the System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and discuss the predictive and adaptive approaches to SDLC, evaluate the usefulness and limitation of each approach as well.


SDLC methodologies
• System Development Life Cycle indicates the key steps in the software development procedure. Each of these steps needs to be critically operated in the system design process, for the sake of obtaining the most efficient software for the chosen application. Important steps in the Software Development life cycle include planning, defining, designing, Building, Testing and Deployment (Yadav and Kumar, 2016). Each of these steps will improve the fault removal from the overall system and will work on to enable the most efficiency and effective software for the intended application. Dividing the overall development process into stratified steps will ease the overall development process and will enable the developers not to miss any significant development factor in the due course of time.
• Predictive and Adaptive approaches are two commonly employed approaches for SDLC and each of these two techniques do have their own merits and limitations (Radack, 2009).
• SDLC came into play because of the fact that the software development has become more complex and more and more difficulties exist in patching and integrating different modules. SDLC make sure that each of these phases do operate in unison and will enable that the complete software is prepared intact and meet the objectives of the programme. Predictive approach consists in the belief that all modules and subsystems can be planned prior to the actual design and development of the complete system. Each and every sub element will be planned before and will be integrated as per the pre plan made before. There are again two different parts in the predictive approach like water fall and parallel models. Water fall model takes more time for the delivery and also changes in the design are difficult once the particular phase is complete, alternative to this is parallel method, where in the sub tasks are done separately, where in the integration of these sub parts is easier in the later times and also there is sufficient scope for easy modifications in the later part of the software development.
• Adaptive model do have advantage of fitting for the complex software development life cycles. The model does have unique attributes of speculation, collaboration and learning methods. Speculation is almost synonymous to the planning phase; where in the requirements of the model will be evaluated considering uncertainty. It is more of speculation and collection of the actual operational conditions as well as the development of the related requirements in accordance with the actual operational scenario. Secondly the speculation of the process will follow with collaboration, where the actual collaboration of different knowledge streams do happen, information from diverse channels of the software development cycles will be integrated to tunnel out the collaboration.

Predictive methodology.jpg

Figure 1 Predictive methodology

Predictive methodology1.jpg

Figure 2 Adaptive SDLC

Agile or water fall technologies
• Agile and Waterfall technologies:
• Waterfall technology is a typical predictive approach for SDLC and Agile technology is a typical adaptive approach. Waterfall model proceeds in such a way, that once a particular phase of the project is complete, it will move towards the next phase and so and so-forth, it is also termed as sequential life cycle model. Agile methodology does work alternatively with concurrent operations. There will be better communication between managers, clients and developers. Agile is more suitable in the cases where there is uncertainty.
• Water fall model is good for managing dependencies well, but needs the requirements good at the beginning itself. Agile can assure better quality, but little more expensive than waterfall methods.

Chosen Methodology:
Since the application is not very complex as of now, at this phase predictive methodology is sufficient for design of the application. It can be rendered in less time and also there is sufficient scope for the cost reduction as a whole. However once the application becomes complex and if need to include several other complex features of uncertainty other methods can be employed, at this moment there is no need for other methodologies and just predictive methodology can be selected.


Discuss requirement finding techniques such as interview, questionnaire etc to capture the businesS requirements and specification

Requirements collection
The process of collection of the requirements depends on the identification of the particular requirement and analysis of the concerned environmental factors as well. The following are the typical requirements to be collected from the interview with the client and the other stakeholders.
• What services want to include for the client in the website portfolio?
• The types of the cabs wanted to include, the services of the cabs to be included?
• What details of the users to be included in the web-site?
• What are the preferable payment options for the cab- services from the site?
• Also the range of the services of the cabs, the types of cabs that the Quick would like to include in the site.
• How the site appearance wanted to be like?
• A typical survey of the users in the locality can be employed to propose new services, features and other interested contents to include in the service.
• What type of services are you looking from the site?
• What type of typical service time delay do you prefer?
• How well are you likely to choose the service(frequency)?
• What is your budget?
• What type of devices do you keep for the app(IOS, Windows, android etc)?

Expected outcomes:
o Quick company functional requirements like what type of services that the cab services willing to provide like in station, outstation, long trips, hiring with driver, leasing without driver etc.
o Personal details and the list of the details to be included in the site
o The methodologies of payment for the cab services will be finalized after discussion with the management and after discussion with the local financial institutions and working out the feasible alternatives.
o Other features like the site appearance, colors, themes need to be finalized after discussion of the Quick cabs management.
This process will finalize the requirements and the specifications for the final product.

Provide function and non-functional requirements of the system.

Both the functional and non-functional requirements to be included in the modelling.
Functional requirements:
• Providing users with the option of the services available to choose from
• Providing option to fix the destination on the site.
• Option to display the price based on the destinations selected in the site.
• Opportunity to choose the right ride and verify the time it takes and the drivers available etc.
• Also displaying the options of the payment for the users, collection and transfer to Quick cabs.
• Displaying MIS reports as required for the management like total transactions on the day, details, timing etc (Usman & Ogwueleka,2018).


Non-Functional Requirements:
• Highly secured (Nazir and Nazir,2018)- should not yield for hacking
• Performance is required to be reliable and fast
• There should be provision to scale the systems for the future requirements
• There should be provision for maintenance as and when needed - however the need for maintenance to be minimized with efficient design and programming
• Other features like compatibility of the software on different platforms etc.

Requirements modelling.jpg

Figure 3 Requirements modelling

Typical requirements modelling can be done as per the following model diagram shown in fig-3.

Legend for the modelling exercise:

1. At the outset there is need for the user to initiate a query on the quick cabs app for the sake of details of cab availability.

2. The site admin will take up the query, inspects the query of the user (3) and verifies the same with the repository available with them(4) regarding availability of the cabs of that model,

5. User does receive the information from the Quick cabs Admin and go through the availability of the services of the cabs.

8. User will select the right choice from the available options and will confirm his requirements

9. System will receive the user confirmed needs and will verify the same with the price details repository and sends back the pricing details to the user.

10. User once is satisfied with the pricing will initiates the payment.

11. The banking system will receive the payment from the user and will send confirmation to the system on the payment status by the user.

12. System confirms the payment status from the user financial institution and once it is verified will send a confirmed order to the driver as well will send an acknowledgement to the user of the trip commencement.

13. Driver will receive the trip order on his GPS enabled mobile app and will get ready to pick up the user from the spot shown in the app by the system.

Quick Cabs online order receival and confirmation model is presented in brief based on the actual requirements of the service provider as well with consideration to the user interests. The complete requirements mapping is done along with the model graph. Since the requirements are quite certain and also the project, as is not very complex predictive methodology is employed, since the cost will be less.


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