Hirschis delinquency theory
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Question 1. Describe the four bonds that form the basis of Hirschi’s delinquency theory. How can one create stronger social bonds in a person who is, right now, an offender?
Hirschi’s delinquency theory is consider as the benchmark for the construction and research of theory in the field of delinquency. This theory is designed on the basis of assumption that human beings naturally holds the ability of committing any unlawful act. The four types of bonds involved in this theory are:
Attachment- It corresponds to the closeness and affection of an individual with others.
The family environment is considered as the primary source of attachment as parents are taken as the role model for their children. They are the one to teach them the socially acceptable behaviour.
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Commitment- It relates to the ambition of a youth to join college and get a high status job.
Involvement- It refers to participate in the conventional activities which can further help to achieve status objectives and socially valued success.
Belief- It describes the moral validity and acceptance of the social value system on a central level (Hirschi, 2017).
Offenders continue to offend throughout their entire life and is therefore difficult to create social bond in them. However, certain cognitive transformation can create social bond in them, viz., i) greater openness towards change, ii) consider social bond as important for them.
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Question 2. From the perspective of human nature and social order, why do people conform? Why do others not conform? Who decides what is morally right or wrong? Why does this matter to criminologists and criminal justice policymakers?
Conformity is described as the endeavor of maintaining a standard (norms) developed by a certain group like school, office, or hospital. Based on the human nature and the social order, conformity occurs in an individual to either ‘go along’ or ‘fit in’ with the society. Most of the time people conform according to the guidelines given by the roles to be performed, which is based on other’s expectation.
Some people are born or natural leaders and they do not come under any group pressure. This unique personality characteristic makes them to not conform in any situation. In our society criminal justice policymakers and criminologists have been given the responsibility to judge the morally right behavior. Most of the criminologists have considered conformity as the socially granted rules, and assume conformity as a natural activity in human development. According to some social control theorist, conformity is not acceptable, since delinquency and crime are the consequences of poorly managed morality system (Cooley, 2017).
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