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HI6008 Business Research Project Assignment Help

Write a report on the Research Design and Methodology  -  is to ensure each student is able to contribute to the  construction  of  a  written  report  demonstrating  their  understanding  of  the  business  research  paradigm,  appropriate methodology, data collection, analysis and interpretation. Topic : Animal Testing on Animals

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Introduction

Importance of the study

Animal testing is enormously increasing for the examination of the hypoallergenic properties and safety of the cosmetics (Simmons, 2019). Brien, (2016), claims that not less than six millions of animals in Australia are subjected to different medical and cosmetic experiments every year. In response to the issue, the alternative methods are to be generated regarding animal testing to minimize the adverse impacts on Animals due to business experiments. Animal testing draws numerous damaging consequences (Meigs et al., 2018). The rabbits, rats, hamsters, guinea pig, are every year considered to be a part of the testing of the cosmetics (Vinardell, and Mitjans, 2017). The trial of cosmetics makes the animals suffering from the issues of rashes, ulcers, severe and minor wounds, inflammation on the skin, bleedings and other skin damages (Macfarlane et al., 2009). Besides, the animal tests affect animal protection and rights. This has become necessary to draw attention to the fact and obligate the circumstances to stop with the help of animal protection laws of Australia. The negligence of the occurrence and animal's sufferings signifies that very few studies have been conducted on this particular domain.

Research plan

The research plans to study the relevant literatures that develop a comprehensive idea regarding the impacts of animal testing on animals. The literature study will identify the effectiveness of the alternative animal tastings in the context of the Australian cosmetics industry. The open-ended questions are to be developed to avail the descriptive response from the respondents. The research questions have been answered with the help of literature, and qualitative data gathered from the interviews. The descriptive research design has been applied, and secondary data collection technique has been followed to collect the data. The descriptive research data will contribute to explore the phenomenon and design the alternative technology to reduce harm on animals.

Research questions

- What is the perception of the stakeholders involved with the practice and the government on the subject?

- What laws are present and can be imposed against animal testing in Australia?

- What is the impact of animal testing on the animals?

- What are the alternative animal testing, and how can they be implemented in this context?

Justifications

The rationale behind developing the first question to assess the mind-set of the owners of the cosmetic industry and the other stakeholders regarding animal testing. This will help to understand why the cruel practice had taken place to this extent. The understanding of perspective will lead to check the effectiveness and acceptability of the newly derived alternative methods. The second question has been framed to identify the legislative obligations of the country that will contribute to discontinue the practice. The third question will lead the research to understand the extent of adverse impact of the practice on animals. The understanding of the third question will help to develop the alliterative methods and tactics that will ensure the reduction of negative effects on the animals. The last farmed question is the key to explore the alternative method of animal testing and get rid of the conventional process.

Research methodology-

Research design

The scientific and systematic conduction of a study depends on the method which is followed to execute the study (Creswell, and Poth, 2017). The scientific approach developed for the proceeding of study is known as design of research, and is termed as "research design". Research design is categorized as exploratory, explanatory and descriptive approach and utilized as per the requirements and aims and objectives of research. Generally, the exploratory research design is followed to understand or explore the research question. A profound understanding of research questions leads the researcher to stick to research area while conducting the entire research. Quite the opposite, the descriptive design of study are used to put emphasize on the "phenomenon" of study and describe the same with the help of quantitative and qualitative data (Nassaji, 2015). The later phase of descriptive research is the explanatory research, where the researcher explains the phenomenon and emphasizes on the cause and effects of the event through the detailed description. For this specific study, the descriptive research design is regarded to be most apposite. The rationales behind selecting descriptive research design are inscribed below:

- The descriptive research approach will facilitate to explore the research questions and observe the research topic with an in-depth understanding

- This particular research design allows the researcher to collect and analyze both quantitative and qualitative data with regards to the study area

- The mentioned research design facilitates to explore and describe the phenomenon with both statistical and non-statistical data. Hence the research conclusions become more appropriate and authentic and bias-less

- Helps to save time and extra efforts for the study

- Allows the researcher to judge the truthfulness of the research hypothesis

Research approach

The research methodology incorporates research approaches, philosophy, as well as the collection and analyses techniques. Research approach can be defined as the assumptions made to select the data collection and analysis techniques. Depended on the research requirements, the research approach is divided into three typologies: inductive approach, Deductive approach and the abductive research. The researchers chose the deductive method of research to deduce research hypothesis. Following the deductive research hypothesis, the researchers judge the truthiness of the research hypothesis and reject or confirm as per the results of data analysis. The inductive research is followed where the research hypothesis are not existing (Woo, O'Boyle, and Spector, 2017). The inductive research approach allows the researcher to discover the research phenomenon from depth. On the contrary, the abductive research approach emphasizes on the weak points of the above mentioned two research approaches. As the research does not require hypothesis to be tested and only seeks to develop the conceptual frameworks to respond to the established research questions, the inductive approach has been followed in the research.

Research philosophy

Research philosophy takes in hand the methods of data collection and analysis (Hughes and Sharrock, 2016). The researcher finds the most accurate approach of data collection method or the research through research philosophy. Positivism, pragmatism, Realism and interpretivism are the research philosophies that lead to collect data, develop sampling strategy and analyze the same (Hughes, and Sharrock, 2016). Mainly the pragmatism philosophy guides to conduct research through mixed data collection (qualitative and quantitative).

On the contrary, the interpretivism research philosophy allows the research to conduct in-depth investigations with descriptive or qualitative data. Positivism lies on the data collection from large-sized samples, while realism research philosophy allows the researcher to select between quantitative or qualitative data (Hughes, and Sharrock, 2016). As descriptive data has been appropriate to explore the research questions and meet research objectives, the interpretivism research approach has been implemented in the study.

Data collection technique

Both primary and secondary data collection technique has been followed in the study. The primary data collection method allows researchers to collect data directly from sources through case studies, interviews, discussions, surveys (Prada-Ramallal et al., 2018). The secondary data collection technique allows the researcher to gather data from secondary source, i.e., where the data has already been published (Prada-Ramallal et al., 2018). On that note, primary data has been collected from the interviews, and the secondary data gathered from the literature reviews.

Data type

Qualitative data has been given predominance for primary research. Data can be divided into two types: qualitative and quantitative data (Goertzen, 2017). Quantitative data deals with statists and numerical data; on the contrary, the secondary data deals with non-numerical descriptive data (Goertzen, 2017). Qualitative data allows the researcher to explore the phenomenon, while quantitative data allows the researcher to judge the truthiness of the hypothesis (Bryman, A., 2017). However, the quantitative data is time-saving and easy to conduct, and qualitative data is opposite to this (Lewis, 2015). Hence, the research has been conducted with qualitative data collected from a small-sample-size. The small size has allowed conducting data collection and analysis in a short time and discovering the research topic with the insight of descriptive data.

Sampling strategy

Sampling strategy lies with the main two processes: probability and non-probability sampling (Robertson, and Sibley, 2018). The probability sampling strategy allows the researcher to include every individual of the large population to consider as a sample. In other words, in this kind of sampling, each individual has the probability to be selected as sample. In contrast, in non-probability sampling, not every individual has the prospect of being selected. In this research, only the response of the people involved with this sector is required. Hence the non-probability sampling strategy has been followed throughout the study. The people involved with research and development team (R&D) will better answer the questions as they are already involved with the practice and can innovative the alternative method. Hence, five employees working R&D team of top cosmetic company in Australia has been interviewed.

Sample size: Five

Features: Experienced by 10 years in R&D of Cosmetics Company

Questionnaire design factors

The research has been developed considering the factors below:

Before designing the research question, this was determined which kind of data is required from the interview (Jenset, IKlette, and Hammerness, 2017). As the descriptive data was needed for the research, the closed-ended questions were avoided so that the respondents can better share the perspective in expressive manner

Special attention was given to ensure that the research question lies on the primary research domain

The order of the questions is an essential factor in designing a survey of interview questions (Krosnick, 2018). While designing the order, this was checked that the question are interconnected and maintains a coherence

The questions were designed considering the objectives of the research be met (Krosnick, 2018)

The questions were such designed that they become simple and easy to understand so that the respondents can easily understand and deliver the required answer (Krosnick, 2018)

Interview questions were such designed that this does not take much time from the respondents (Jann, and Hinz, 2016

Sample research questions

Do you think that animal testing needs to be stopped? Why do you think the alternative methods are not being implemented?

Do you consider that the animal protection law in Australia can successfully obligate this practice?

Which alternative methods of animal testing are known to you?

Will you consider the In-vitro testing has been efficient for the context? If not, then why?

How can the companies implement alternative methods eliminating the traditional?

Data collection and analysis

Literature review

Doke and Dhawale (2015) has emphasized on the strategy of 3Rs in the encouragement of the alternative animal testing procedures. The three Rs renders towards reduction, refinement and replacement of the conventional animal testing methods. Applying the 3R approach, the methods like computer modelling, cell cultures, in-vitro testing, in-vivo testing are found to be the most suitable replacement of the traditional practice. As depicted buy the authors, the in-vivo methods can be applied as the alternative. However, this is most suitable for experiments related to drugs. The skin irritation test is the most crucial experiment in case of cosmetics. Hence the in-vitro methods are most apt to experiment with the skin-irritating properties of the cosmetic products. The article has demonstrated the effectiveness of the specialized computer model techniques. As opined by authors, the advanced application software empowers the researchers to detect and analyze the properties of cosmetics without hurting any creature. The computer models are known as CADD, which can be successfully used for both cosmetics and medicine industry.

Alépée, et al., (2016) have pondered upon the in-vitro methods as an alternative to animal testing approach. In-vitro is immensely used in the cosmetic industries of Europe, which indicates the effectiveness and success of the technique. However, the test is more effective in case of the coloured chemicals cosmetic ingredients. Researchers have contributed to the enhancement and betterment of the in-vitro process (Corvi, and Madia, 2017). While some other studies have demonstrated on the approach of an alternative organism to oppose animal testing (Vinardell, and Mitjans, 2017). The advancement of bioinformatics tools, computer modeling and cell-culture methods have contributed to the rapid development of alternative organisms. The study has shown how different alternative microorganisms can be used for various experiments, including the characteristics of cosmetic products. Altweb, AWIC, ECVAM are some conventional and applicable approaches of alternative organisms. The in-vitro testing allows the researchers to experiment with a diverse range of chemical products. The approach of 3D cell culture creates the environment to grow cells and conduct experiment with the same (Ravi, 2015). Hence, this is also the alternative to conduct tests without hurting the creatures. Many of the laboratories use this method as replacement of guinea-pig or mouse, which ensures the protection of animals. In the case of experiment of allergic attributed to the cosmetics, the in-vitro process is found to be the most accurate and reliable testing approach. From the review of literatures, the in-vitro method is found to be most accurate for the testing of cosmetics without hurting a single creature.

 

Figure: Alternative organism and the uses

(Source: Vinardell, and Mitjans, 2017)

Qualitative data 

Interpreting the responses given by the respondents, this is to see that all the respondents are favour of stopping the animal testing.  The respondents consider that animal testing is still going on as the alternative technology is not easy to implement. The second respondent also agreed upon saying the cosmetics testing lab does not have the infrastructure to include the bioinformatics tools and implement the alternative methods. One of the respondents admitted that the organizations are not concerned about the ethics and not inclined to invest in the alternative methods. 

The respondents said that the animal protection laws are not abided by the organizations and even the government is sometimes lacking to review the incidents. The other respondents demonstrated that the animal protection laws are effective; however, the laboratory guidelines are to be designed in accordance with the animal protection laws. The interpretation of the data shows though the laws are present, people, organizations and laboratories are not inclined to abide by the laws. In response to the third question, the respondents agreed on a common name, which is the in-vitro process. One of the respondents, having 14 years of experience emphasized on the computer modelling process. The respondent replied, "computer modelling is the best use of technology, which facilitates the experiments with minimum wastage of time and extra efforts”. The data analysis showed the respondents are in favour of the "in-vitro" method. One of the respondents regarded this as "most accurate" method. The third respondent admitted this as "most scientific" method. One of them answered that "the UK, US are successfully applying this technique and saving thousands of lives. We can also implement this technique for the protection of animals”. "We can implement the alternative methods if the organizations invest more in R&D for resources," said one of the responders which indicate adequate resources will bring changes in the contemporary practices.  In response to the fifth question, one of the respondents claimed that the government needs to initiate and conduct a campaign so that the organizations could change the mindset.

The analysis shows that in-vitro is the most effective alternative to animal testing, which can easily be implemented when the government and cosmetic companies take the initiative to implement the same and manage for investments and resources.

Conclusion and expected outcomes  

The research questions have been answered through literature reviews and qualitative data. The literatures have explored the different alternatives, and the interview has facilitated to explore the perspective of the people regarding alternative methods, the effectiveness and method to implement the methods. The progress of the study resulted in availing of the in-depth idea regarding the adverse impacts of animal testing and the potential alternative methods to ensure animal protection. The study concludes that there are the laws and effective infrastructure to look for the advanced approach. However, the mind-set of people are not favourable for the implementation. This is expected that the future researches have been conducted to explore how the alternative methods like "in-vitro", computer modelling or alternative organism, cell cultures can be implemented in reality. The rats, pigs, rabbits are also creatures; they have lives and feelings too, the animal testing is simply inhumane and illegal. On a concluding note, the study found the in-vitro method to be most appropriate for the successful replacement of animal testing as this is scientific, systematic, provides accurate results and secures animal protections.

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