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Assignment - Ethical Case Studies
Instructions - To prepare to lead the next staff training: Read the case studies. Read all corresponding resources for this Project to learn more about how to analyze ethical issues; feel free to conduct your own research to learn more about these ethical issues.
Create a detailed outline that analyzes each case study. Use the resource titled A Framework for Thinking Ethically as a guide for each outline. A summary of the case study. The ethical issue you identified in the case. The facts of the case.
Solution - Ethical Case studies
Ethical dilemmas make up some of the common scenarios in organizational project management activities. Decision making in such ethical issues need to be directed by set of code of conduct or professional standards for fair business operations. The current report is about ethical dilemmas in few particular cases and discussion is presented with means and ways of resolving the issues by applying appropriate ethical resolution procedures. The report provides with summary of ethical outlines for each case.
Case 1 - Patient Autonomy
Summary of the case: It is the situation of a general practitioner, being visited by a child and her mother. The child is complaining of the flu- like symptoms. However there are observations of distinct bruises on the boy's torso. These bruises are from her mother performing the Cao-gio which is followed in cultures but not recommended medically. The process consists in using heated coins and rubbing the same on the skin of the patient. But the mother does not look like done that intentionally, she just wanted to relieve the suffering of the child due to bad blood. However as a medical practitioner, one can observe the child wincing in pain from bruises. The issue is now whether to call for the child protective service or the police to report the mother.
Ethical Issue: The ethical issue in the case is the ethical dilemma; it is clear indication of the child abuse and created bruising on the child. However they are not caused intentionally to harm the child, rather they are done with a reason to make him recovered as per their cultural belief. The ethical dilemma is whether to report the mother to the child abuse services or not?
The child is created with bruises on the skin.
Mother agreed that she is performing Cao-gio on the kid.
Mother has not done this to harm the child rather done that ignorantly believing it will cure the kid.
As a medical practitioner a more appropriate decision to be taken in the circumstances and also it need to be ethically and professionally compliant with the responsibilities.
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Evaluation of the potential actions as per the five approaches:
Utilitarian approach is related with doing greatest good to the greatest number and it has nothing to do with the child case. It is a specific case and any decision in this particular case will not have any direct implications to the people at large, however, still there can be implications in the form of influencing future decision in similar situations. Hence the approach will recommend taking up an ethical decision (Mandal et al., 2016).
The rights approach is related with honoring the rights of the people and receiving the same response too. In this regard, it is right to respect the moral rights of the child to lead a dignified life and hence there it is advisable not to treat the child the way she is treated, mother should be enlightened to respect the rights of the child (Jackman, 2015).
The justice approach emphasizes that the benefits and the harms need to be distributed among the stakeholders in a fair and equitable manner. As such there is no any benefit the mother is getting by doing this treatment to the child, she is just doing that as per her wrong belief, if once she is enlightened of right procedures, she will follow the right procedures later on.
The common good approach is related with the benefit to the community as a whole or collectively. In the current situation enlighting the right information to the mother and refraining her from doing this again will help in future the entire community. As an educated person, she will also teach the same to others and hence it is recommended to provide the necessary knowledge and information to mother to let her refrain from doing this.
The virtue approach emphasizes the virtues (Character) rather than the rules and regulations. Medical practitioner need to be guided by virtue (character) to help the child same time to let the mother educated. As per rules, there may be need to complain the child abuse services, but ethically speaking there is no need to complaint, knowing that it is done ignorantly.
The right approach and the rationale
As a medical practitioner, it cannot be continued to let the child get bruised. So the first thing that I will do is to inform the mother about the irrationality of this approach and will educate them what to do and what not in case the child is suffering from flu. Will provide the treatment for the bruises as well for the flu. I will ask the mother to visit back the health care center after few days to see whether the guidelines are followed or not? AS of now there is no need to do any complaint, as it is not ethically justified, however still she can be warned that she can be reported, if the case is repeated again, more over if she succumbs to same again in future, she can be reported as well. As of now, all decisions will be taken purely from ethical perspective. The parent has legal and moral authority to choose the treatment for her child, but it is allowed as long as it is not harmful to the child, non-malfeasance and beneficence are the key criteria considered in the current decision (Runciman et al.,2017).
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Case 2 - Access to Care
Summary of the case: The case is about the mother bringing her son to the health care centre. The parents are not in a position to afford the insurance for the son or for themselves. However their earning is more than the criteria to be qualified for state or federal aid. The boy is given with the treatment however he returned back with the same scenario. The issue is what to be done?
Ethical Issue: The ethical issue in the current case is whether to let the patient go-off without treatment as he cannot be treated within the framework of the health care at present. Neither they can afford the treatment nor they are eligible for insurance. However it is not ethically acceptable. The moral and ethical principles emphasize social good and equal access to care from all people of the society. In this regard, it is the ethical dilemma whether to let the child move off or to provide him with the necessary support at the hospital expenses. If it is the second option, the hospital regulations will not allow for the same, for that matter the child is already given treatment once.
The child is already suffering with illness
The child is given treatment once at the cost of the health care
Parents are not eligible for insurance
As well they are not in a position to afford to pay the insurance premium
The decision need to follow bio-ethics, medical ethics as well should be obliged by the hospital regulations.
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Evaluation of the potential actions as per the five approaches
Utilitarian approach insists to take up a decision as per the greater good to greater number rule. However this is a case of specific individual and their family, there are no direct consequences to the society at large; however decisions can show up a predicate to the society in the later time.
Rights of the patient need to be honored, as a citizen of the country, he has right to get good treatment and good wellbeing, he need to be provided with treatment.
The justice approach says that the benefits need to be shared by all stakeholders, hence the economy and the profits of the country should reach everyone in the society, hence there is need to consider this as a positive element and child to be provided with the health care however the decision need to consider other aspects of cost of the treatment as well (Almgren, 2017).
The common good approach insists that every person of the society need to be benefited and decisions need to be taken up for collective good in the society. Hence the decisions in the current case should remain predicate for better response in the society.
The virtue ethics approach is about regulations from character not from the rules, it is about the character of the medical practitioner that decides the decision in the current case, not the rules of the organization(Annas,2015).
The right approach and the rationale
The right decision in the current case is not to let the burden be on the organization as it is against the professional obligation to do serve the organization with professional integrity. At the same time it is an ethical obligation to treat the helpless child. Either way the ends need to meet. So the right solution can be either taking up direct assistance from medical voluntary or charitable organizations that can provide assistance to the child. An ethical duty, I will contact any charitable organization and will get the necessary benefit to the child and also will suggest any private managed cares if available within their budget to enroll in future for better access to care. This way the child will be saved as well it will not go beyond the profit objectives of the organization. Both the ends will be met, that too without any ethical breach in the decision(Savulescu,2015).
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