ECON1030  Business Statistics, RMIT University, Australia
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Question 1: Locate the data file (Assignment_BusStats.xls) on CANVAS.
A. Use the most appropriate type of graph to present the weekly closing price of Bitcoin (BIT) and provide a general description, commenting on the trend. [Topic 1]
B. Calculate the weekly return for BIT and construct a histogram. Does the data on return rates appear normally distributed? On the basis of zscores do you find evidence of outliers? Hint: the formula for a return is (Current Price  Previous price)/Previous price multiplied by 100. [Topics 14]
C. Calculate and interpret the three aspects of Descriptive Analysis for weekly return: Location, Shape and Spread. Hint: make sure you interpret these measures in the context of the data and pay attention to the unit of measurement.
D. Construct a 95% confidence interval for BIT return and interpret the interval.
E. An investment advisor claimed that BIT return is 2%. Do you agree? Justify your reasoning using a twotailed hypothesis test approach at the significance level of 5%.
F. Repeat steps 15 above for another financial stock traded at the Australia Securities Exchange: the Macquarie Group Limited (MAC).
G. Explore the association between BIT and MAC returns. Specifically, construct a contingency table for the positive and nonpositive returns of the two stocks and calculate the following: a) Prob (BIT return is positive), b) Prob (MAC return is positive), and c) Prob (positive BIT return conditional on positive MAC return). Are returns to BIT and MAC statistically independent? Hint: use the IF function in excel to construct the four joint events: +ve and +ve returns, +ve and ve returns, ve and +ve returns, ve and ve returns.
Answer: Executive Summary: The main objective of this study is to determine the proper use of statistical tools. The variables taken into consideration for this study is BIT and MAC. The mean BIT is 3645.45 ± 4935 and the median BIT value is 829.08 and mean MAC is 82.09 ± 25.75 and the median MAC value is 81.36. The study findings suggest that there is no linear relationship between BIT and MAC, indicating that there exists nonlinear relationship between BIT and MAC. Thus, we can say that these variables depends on time
Introduction: The main objective of this study is to determine the proper use of statistical tools. The random variables are normally classified as either qualitative or quantitative variables. The use of statistical tools will differ based on the variables taken into consideration. If we are trying to find the relationship between one continuous variable and one categorical variable, then, the appropriate statistical test is either independent sample t test (comparing two group mean) or one way ANOVA
Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics was used for continuous variables and frequency distribution and bar chart was used for qualitative variables to assess the distribution of those variables. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between two continuous variables. Independent sample t test or Mann Whitney U test was used to find the difference in mean between two groups. Sensitivity and specificity analysis was used to assess the ability of the test used.
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Descriptive Statistics: The descriptive statistics for the variables BIT and MAC is given below

BIT

MAC

Mean

3645.45

82.09

Standard Error

269.23

1.40

Median

829.08

81.36

Mode


58.30

Standard Deviation

4935.00

25.75

Sample Variance

24354245.71

663.20

Kurtosis

2.28

0.87

Skewness

1.64

0.27

Range

25934.49

101.13

Minimum

52.06

34.86

Maximum

25986.55

135.99

Sum

1224872.23

27580.87

Count

336

336

The mean BIT is 3645.45 ± 4935 and the median BIT value is 829.08, indicating that nearly 50% of the sample BIT value falls below 829.08 and nearly 50% of the sample BIT value falls above 829.08. The recorded minimum and maximum BIT value 52.06 and 25986.55 respectively. On comparing the mean and median of BIT, we can say that the distribution of BIT has longer tail towards the right side of the normal curve, indicating that the distribution of BIT is skewed right or positively skewed
The descriptive statistics for the variables BIT and MAC is given below

BIT

MAC

Mean

3645.45

82.09

Standard Error

269.23

1.40

Median

829.08

81.36

Mode


58.30

Standard Deviation

4935.00

25.75

Sample Variance

24354245.71

663.20

Kurtosis

2.28

0.87

Skewness

1.64

0.27

Range

25934.49

101.13

Minimum

52.06

34.86

Maximum

25986.55

135.99

Sum

1224872.23

27580.87

Count

336

336

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The mean MAC is 82.09 ± 25.75 and the median MAC value is 81.36, indicating that nearly 50% of the sample MAC value falls below 81.36 and nearly 50% of the sample MAC value falls above 81.36. The recorded minimum and maximum MAC value 34.86 and 135.99 respectively. On comparing the mean and median of MAC, we can say that the distribution of MAC has equal tail width on both sides of the normal curve, indicating that the distribution of MAC follows normal distribution
Relationship between BIT and MAC: In order to determine the relationship between BIT and MAC, we construct scatter plot
From the above scatter plot, we see that there is no linear relationship between BIT and MAC, indicating that there exists nonlinear relationship between BIT and MAC. Thus, we can say that these variables depends on time
Regression Model: The regression model was constructed to predict the MAC value based on BIT and time. The regression equation is
MAC = b_{0} + b_{1} * Time + b_{2} * BIT
The regression output is given below
SUMMARY OUTPUT
Regression Statistics

Multiple R

0.95863911

R Square

0.91898894

Adjusted R Square

0.91850238

Standard Error

7.35179654

Observations

336

ANOVA

df

SS

MS

F

Significance F

Regression

2

204172.5

102086.2

1888.775

1.9E182

Residual

333

17998.29

54.04891



Total

335

222170.7





Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

Pvalue

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Intercept

40.4475901

0.860686

46.99458

5.1E149

38.75452

42.14066

Time

0.24124253

0.00612

39.41963

1.8E127

0.229204

0.253281

BIT

0.00033746

0.00012

2.801396

0.005386

0.0001

0.000574

From the above output, we see that
MAC = 40.448 + 0.241 * Time + 0.00034 * BIT
The coefficient of determination is 0.919, which clearly indicates that the dependent variable MAC variation of 91.9% was clearly explained by the regression model while the left out variation of 8.1% remains unexplained
The overall significance model was validated using F test for overall significance. Here, the p  value was found to be less than 0.05, indicating that the estimated regression model is good fit in predicting MAC
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Conclusion: The main objective of this study is to determine the proper use of statistical tools. The random variables are normally classified as either qualitative or quantitative variables. The mean BIT is 3645.45 ± 4935 and the median BIT value is 829.08, indicating that nearly 50% of the sample BIT value falls below 829.08 and nearly 50% of the sample BIT value falls above 829.08. The mean MAC is 82.09 ± 25.75 and the median MAC value is 81.36, indicating that nearly 50% of the sample MAC value falls below 81.36 and nearly 50% of the sample MAC value falls above 81.36. The regression equation to predict MAC using Time and BIT is given below
MAC = 40.448 + 0.241 * Time + 0.00034 * BIT
The coefficient of determination is 0.919, which clearly indicates that the dependent variable MAC variation of 91.9% was clearly explained by the regression model while the left out variation of 8.1% remains unexplained
Question 2: Write a ministerial brief of no more than 200 words containing no more than three graphs on whether you can confidently recommend investing in the Bitcoin, as compared with MAC. Hint: draw on the relevant evidence you have gathered from Part A, as well as other information/evidence not covered here but you believe is useful.
Answer: The main objective of this study is to determine the proper use of statistical tools. The random variables are normally classified as either qualitative or quantitative variables. Descriptive statistics was used for continuous variables and frequency distribution and bar chart was used for qualitative variables to assess the distribution of those variables. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between two continuous variables. Independent sample t test or Mann Whitney U test was used to find the difference in mean between two groups. Sensitivity and specificity analysis was used to assess the ability of the test used. The Histogram for the two variables BIT and MAC is given below
From the above graph, it clearly shows that the variable BIT has outliers and hence do not follow normal distribution while the variable MAC follows normal distribution approximately. The mean BIT is 3645.45 ± 4935 and the median BIT value is 829.08. The mean MAC is 82.09 ± 25.75 and the median MAC value is 81.36. The study findings suggest that there is no linear relationship between BIT and MAC, indicating that there exists nonlinear relationship between BIT and MAC. Thus, we can say that these variables depends on time.
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