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Discussion on Duty of Care


Unit 204. Introduction to Duty of Care in Health, Social Care or Children’s and Young People’s Settings

1. Define the term ‘duty of care’

Duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on a person in tort of law, which emphasizes and expects reasonable care in the given circumstances. Duty of care provides benchmarking of duties and responsibilities expected by any responsible person in the circumstances existing there in. Duty of care is applicable in all contractual obligations, where the expected care will be part of the contractual obligations and the executor will be expected to deliver his part of his responsibilities. As per legal definitions, Duty of care refers to legal obligations imposed on individual requiring that they do adhere to the standard of reasonable care while performing any acts that would foreseeable harm others. In medical scenarios, it is possible that the medical negligence arising from the breach of the duty of care will result in compensation to the victim and the custodial sentence to the doctor. However for medical negligence to get proved it is necessary to establish that the doctor do owe duty of care towards the patient, patient has suffered with the injury or loss due to the failure of the duty of care and the doctor neglected his duty of care. If these three components are proved then only the doctors defence organization or the health care organization will be sentenced to meet the compensation as dictated by the court.

2. Describe how the duty of care affects own work role

The work role of the person will integrate in it the expected duty of care practices. The work role and job description will include the essential duty of care practices. They will define both the routine duties expected and the extent of commitment needed by the individual while working on the job. Further duty of care is a balancing act. Typically duty of care will focus on aspects like legal aspects like what the person in the scenario is expected to do as per the legal obligations, professional aspects like what is the expected to do in the situation as per the professional competency, Organizational aspects, which mean what is the expected standard of the duty in accordance with the funding organization? Community perspective, what do the parents or the clients from the community expects from the person performing the duty of care? Personal beliefs what do the values and the belief system expects and suggests to do? All these aspects will be integrated in a balanced frame work and defines the minimum benchmark in responsible health care standards.

3. Describe dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights

Depending on the situation duty of care may get into the dilemmas with the individual rights. For example as per duty of care as individual may be required to move with frame support but he may object for the same and move without, it is his own individual right and causes diverse dilemmas in action. Also a patient may not be in a condition to keep calm and co-operative while taking up intravenal injections while on duties, in such circumstances applying restraints is one common safe practice. But some patients may not like for that and co-operate, in such circumstances duty of care will insist application of restraints, and this do cause ethical dilemmas. Broadly speaking the dilemmas arise between what the necessity to do what is safe for the individual and the respect towards the individual rights and responsibilities. Further individual choice is all that is necessary to be considered in deciding the duty of care and the dilemmas in doing what is the best for the safety of the individual. Further there can difference in opinion and the individual family members may differ with the opinion of what is safe between the opinion of the self and the opinion of the family members. This again creates a conflict and dilemma in executing the duties.

4. Explain where to get additional support and advice about how to resolve such dilemmas, know how to respond to complaints

Resolution of the ethical dilemmas can be mostly done by having open hearted discussion with the individual in focus. Further it may be required to take the confidence of the family members of individuals in the duty of care exercise in health care industry. In most of the cases, there will be consent form where the family members or the responsible persons will provide the approval and this in turn adds to mitigate dilemmas any if existing in the delivery of the health care. Consideration to the professional and ethical perspectives need to be considered to the best when performing activities for resolving the inherent dilemmas. However in the most of the cases, dilemmas need to be resolved by mutual understanding and empathy.

5. Describe how to respond to complaints

Responding to complaints can be done in write-up or even they can be discussed with the concern person by word, face to face. Always availability for discussion and providing support for quick clarification of the issues is part of the responsibilities of the people in the responsible health care professions. At organizational levels there will be separate entity or people will be appointed with separate complaint resolution capacities to take care of the scenario. They will be assigned resources and time to take care of complaint resolution. Complaint resolution will be done as per the organizational standards and other prevailing standards and legislature pertinent to the issue or the complaint. Once the complaint is resolved it can be assigned a reference code and recorded for future reference.

6. Identify the main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints

The key points of the agreed procedure can be quick resolution using both the formal and informal procedures. There should be front office staff available for resolution of the complaints all the time. Complaints can be received verbally or on paper, there is need for quick discussion of the case.  A quick resolution and the solution proposed will be taken with the consent of the concerned people as applicable. Always the complaint resolved will be recorded and can be referred for future reference requirements. There is need for compliance with the expectations of the duty of care and other prevailing established standards in execution of the agreed procedures for quick resolution of the complaints.

Unit 205.Principles of Safeguarding and Protection in Health and Social Care

1.1 -Define the following types of abuse: – physical abuse – sexual abuse – emotional/psychological abuse – financial abuse – institutional abuse – self-neglect – neglect by others

Physical abuse involves abusing someone using physical handling and assault. Sexual abuse mainly involves sexual harassment, female and children are mainly vulnerable for such abuse; Sexual harassment may include molestation, unwanted sexual intercourses, damage either by verbal or non verbal means targeting sexual characteristics of the individual, creating discrimination on sexual basis, bullying all fall in this category of sexual harassment.  Emotional and psychological abuse can happen for anyone, people involved in the neighbourhood can take advantage of the situation and can create emotional and mental distress to the people. These abuses may create intense depression in the target individuals and may lead to suicide in severe cases. Financial abuse involves cheating fraud and other forms of actions for creating financial loss to the victim. Institution abuse includes discriminatory actions by the institution itself. Self-neglect is due to self and self created depression and discrimination.  Neglect by other is others not responding properly to give the necessary care and responsible treatment. Sometimes due to diverse reasons a guardian of a minor may not give the necessary care of the individual and in such cases, the neglect by others is the phrase applicable there. Some of the injuries that normally will be considered as physical abuse will include bruises on the head, on the ear or neck or soft areas like abdomen, back and buttocks. Wounds created during the defence commonly seen on the forearms, upper arms, back of the legs as well on the hands or the feed of the individual. The signs of the physical abuse also can be checked for in the form of bruised scalp and swollen eyes due to hair pulled violently or sometime bruises can be seen in the shape of a hand or a object as well.  When the victim is subjected to severe burning or hitting with the fire objects. Bite marks, fractures of the broken bones fall under this category. Also the complications in respiration due to drowning, suffocation and poisoning fall in the category of the physical abuse. Signs of physical abuse can be seen on the body.

Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse

Sexual  abuse in severe form can be seen in the form of physical assault on the sexual organs, mild abuse may create emotional disturbance, psychological abuse also creates emotional disturbance and depression,  Financial abuse may create loss of finance, Institutional abuse signs indicates discrimination may be in the form of underpay to the employee; Financial abuse in a relationship may result in depriving of the financial resources for getting the necessary food and other facilities from the market, inability to procure the necessary and bare necessities like shelter and other bare requirements for sustenance, Self-neglect result in improper care to oneself,  typical signs of that may include dementia, brain damage, depression or even psychotic disorders. Neglect by others will be seen in the form of poor relations with others and absence of empathy.

1.3 -Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse

If individual is timid, shy, not very mixing and ignorant, he will be more vulnerable to abuse. Also if they belong to minority’s population, even then he will be subjected to vulnerability of abuse. Other possibilities of vulnerability include belonging to female genders, minors in age, physically weak and veterans are all more vulnerable for the abuse than others.

Know how to respond to suspected or alleged abuse

2.1 -Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused

If an individual is suspicious of being abused, he should be counselled for necessary moral, legal and physical support. Should be provided with medical care based on case basis. In most of the cases it will be required to provide emotional support and service to the victims. Ofcourse as part of the counselling procedure, the victim will be evaluated to investigate whether any abuse is really occurred and necessary understanding  need to be taken to establish the cause and assess the severity.

2.2 -Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused

Will provide all support to the victims and enable proper action against assaultants. Further depending on the particular type of abuse, the causes and the factors responsible for the abuse in broad sense need to be evaluated for taking up more comprehensive and corrective decisions. Like in the case if the abuse is created at institutional level, necessary introspection need to be performed on institutional level to eliminate the absue, typical measures may include  creating strict policies and procedures to curb these problems, establishing necessary resources to bring forward the policies and procedures and to initiate the necessary action to curb the recurrence of the same again. At the same the victim need to be availed of all the necessary support in terms of physical support, medical treatment, psychological support and legal support to provide the necessary compensation for the assault in accordance with the prevailing the legal regulations.

2.3 -Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved

Evidence of the abuse need to be preserved based on the case to case basis. Depending on the abuse the evidence need to be established, in certain cases it can be account of the witnesses, in certain cases, the DNA finger prints of the assaultant, CC video footages, the recordings of the verbal abuse etc makes the evidences and they need to be preserved as per the particular type of witness. In any case the evidence establishment after identification do make the major part of the issue and once it is established it should be preserved.

Understand the national and local context of safeguarding and protection from abuse

3.1 -Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse

National organizations like National Home department, Associations for domestic violence resistance etc makes up some of the organizations working in this direction.  Local systems like help lines online and community help centres will provide assistance to the victims during the assaults and abuse.

3.2 -Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse

Federal organizations and other voluntary will provide the support in legal and moral helps, medical assistance, shelter and rehabilitation in the case to case basis.

3.3 -Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse

Blacks being shot down indiscriminately are a case of racial abuse. This happened several times in the history of United States of America in recent years. There are several reports prepared in the aftermath of the same and necessary modifications to the legislation done in the aftermath.

3.4 -Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse

Internet Information available on the help channels and voluntary organization help lines will provide necessary support to the victims.

Understand ways to reduce the likelihood of abuse

4.1 -Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by: – working with person-centred values – encouraging active participation – promoting choice and rights

Considerable reduction possible by these measures. Person centric values, Encouraging active participation, promoting choice and rights as well.

4.2 -Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse

Highly significant and versatile

Know how to recognise and report unsafe practices

5.1 -Describe unsafe practices that may affect the wellbeing of individuals

Not following legal procedures, ignorance of the rights, unsafe practices make the people vulnerable to dangers and hazards. They will become vulnerable to diverse complications.

5.2 -Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified

Rectify the unsafe practices by providing knowledge of the safe practices and training if required.

5.3 -Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response

Ombudsman role will be existing, to meet the particular entity and to get the required assistance for inaction on part of the responsible parties. Further it may be even required to go through the procedures of the particular organization to avail proper care and protection from abuse.


Unit 229 - Undertake Agreed Pressure Area Care

1.1 -Describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin in relation to skin breakdown and the development of pressure sores

Epidermis, Dermis and Subcutaneous fat layer. Epidermis layer 50 to 100 micro meter, Dermis in 1 to 2mm and hypodermis in 1 to 2 mm thickness.

1.2 -Identify pressure sites of the body

Ankles, elbows, Sacrum, Buttocks, Hips, Legs and Knees

1.3 -Identify factors which might put an individual at risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores

Staying on bad for long time, staying on wheel chair for long time, sitting in one position for a long time and finally weak skin also can be damaged.

1.4 -Describe how incorrect handling and moving techniques can damage the skin

Incorrect handling and moving techniques can cause injuries to the skin in the form of hatches, cuts etc.

1.5 -Identify a range of interventions that can reduce the risk of skin breakdown and pressure sores

Turning to sideways, not allowing for long time staying in one position, working for  regular checks on correct usage of slide sheets, hoists and manual handling.

1.6 -Describe changes to an individual’s skin condition that should be reported

Swelling, red skin, hard skin, redness, red patches, dry skin etc.

Understand good practice in relation to own role when undertaking pressure area care

2.1 -Identify legislation and national guidelines affecting pressure area care

Care standards act, Nice Human rights act, NICE guidelines CQC etc

2.2 -Describe agreed ways of working relating to pressure area care

Care plan and standards of CQC will be followed

2.3 -Describe why team working is important in relation to providing pressure area care

All team need to work consistently as per the agreed plan then it facilitates better care.

Understand the use of materials, equipment and resources available when undertaking pressure area care

4.1 -Identify a range of aids or equipment used to relieve pressure

soft foam and air mattresses

4.2 -Describe safe use of aids and equipment

Slide sheets and hoists need to be employed

4.3 -Identify where up-to-date information and support can be obtained about: – materials – equipment – resources

Material, equipment and resources – Internet, manufacturer data sheets, organizational sites, manuals, management etc.

3.1 -Describe why it is important to follow the agreed care plan

Care plans ensure proper care is delivered and so the patient will be safe

3.2 -Ensure the agreed care plan has been checked prior to undertaking the pressure area care

Yes ensuring the agreed care plan is checked will make sure right procedures are implemented.

3.3 -Identify any concerns with the agreed care plan prior to undertaking the pressure area care

Agreed age care plan need to be monitored for the specific cases based on habitual changes of the people.

3.4 -Describe actions to take where any concerns with the agreed care plan are noted

Appropriate amendments to be planned and approved prior to enforcement

3.5 -Identify the pressure area risk assessment tools which are used in own work area

consistent pressure condition assessment and reporting any considerable changes from time to time.

Be able to prepare to undertake pressure area care

5.1 -Prepare equipment and environment in accordance with health and safety guidelines

Preparation needs to be done as per the standards.

5.2 -Obtain valid consent for the pressure area care

Valid consent is mandatory for start of the agreed care plan.

Unit 232 - Move and Position Individuals in Accordance with their Plan of Care

1.1 -Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals

Anatomy and physiology of human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals helps in employing right type of motion and there by reducing the risk of harm to the body(Shier et al.,2015).  Body is made of bones, which are connected with joints that will allow a range of motion moments. Muscle system consists of muscles connected to the bones.  Sudden movement will cause pain in muscles. Nervous system should be safely handled so that the nerve fibres should not get damaged during the process of body movements.  Areas under pressure and where bones are close to the surface do cause greatest risk for developing pressure sores(Fenner & Clark,2016).

1.2 -Describe the impact of specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual

They will impact the way we support the body and positions. For example a person suffering with dementia may not understand what we are saying while controlling the body motions, similarly a person with heart attack need to be managed with one hand and one leg, as others may be weak.


Understand current legislation and agreed ways of working when moving and positioning individuals

2.1 -Describe how current legislation and agreed ways of working affect working practices related to moving and positioning individuals

The health and safety act of 1974 enables the individuals to work in accordance with the   legal instructions that will ensure that the employees are managed well by employers and they have a duty of care towards the health and well being of employees while moving and positioning them(CDC,2015).

2.2 -Describe what health and safety factors need to be taken into account when moving and positioning individuals and any equipment used to do this

To be trained to move, Check the person’s care plan. Take care to avoid the risk of harm. Equipment used need to be working correctly. Hoist is charged/equipment is clean and not damaged. After usage, equipment preserved carefully.

Know when to seek advice from and/or involve others when moving and positioning an individual

6.1 -Describe when advice and/or assistance should be sought to move or handle an individual safely

Plan of care of the particular individual need to be followed when handling an individual safely. Further it is required to take advice or assistance when individuals have unique problems and ailments. Also if the plan of care is not very comprehensive, external help is to be sought for.

6.2 -Describe what sources of information are available about moving and positioning individuals

Care plan and OT information is normally useful for moving and positioning of the individuals.

Unit 233 - Meet Food Safety Requirements when Providing Food and Drink for Individuals

Understand the importance of food safety measures when providing food and drink for individuals

1.1 -Identify potential food-safety hazards when preparing, serving, clearing away and storing food and drink

Food going mouldy, food leaking, plastic container, contamination, mix with other foods etc are some of the several other concerns to be taken care of.

1.2 -Explain the importance of implementing food-safety measures when providing food and drink for individuals

Individuals will not get ill, It will make sure foreign objects and cut tools not mixed with the food and so will not harm the individuals.

1.3 -Explain why personal protective clothing should be used when handling food and drink

Food contamination will be eliminated by this process.

1.4 -Explain why surfaces, utensils and equipment must be clean before beginning a new task

This will avoid bacteria and other contaminants mixing with the food items

1.5 -Explain the importance of clearing and disposing of food waste promptly and safely

Food waste if stored will become poisonous by bacteria growth

1.6 -Explain the importance of storing different types of food and drink safely

Risk of poisoning will be reduced,  Food when kept in fridge is useful.

Know how to access additional advice or support about food safety

6.1 -Identify sources of information about food safety

Food safety websites on internet. Local authorities, food packaging and policies and procedures.

6.2 -Describe how to access advice and support about own role in maintaining food safety when providing food and drink for individuals

Managerial data and specific job description can be of good use.

Unit 258 - Introductory Awareness of Sensory Loss

Understand the factors that impact on an individual with sensory loss and steps that can be taken to overcome these

1.1 -Describe how a range of factors have a negative and positive impact on individuals with sensory loss

Sensory lost people will miss important information. Negative factors include poor communication, failure in dressing, mobility, hobbies and interests etc  Positive factors include support teams and collaboration.

1.2 -Identify steps that can be taken to overcome factors that have a negative impact on individuals with sensory loss

Set a goal and gradually achieve them. Positive reinforcement will strengthen will power.

1.3 -Explain how individuals with sensory loss can be disabled by attitudes and beliefs

Attitudes and beliefs will weaken the individuals and will make them under performing when they are of negative impact.

1.4 -Identify steps that could be taken to overcome disabling attitudes and beliefs

Positive thinking will let the individuals overcome the disabling and negative attitudes.

Understand the importance of effective communication for individuals with sensory loss

2.1 -Outline what needs to be considered when communicating with individuals with: – sight loss – hearing loss – deafblindness.

Sight loss, they need to be communicated by voice. Hearing loss – hearing aids and sign language is of good use. Deaf use sign language to hear to them. Blindness – by voice and brialee script.

2.2 -Describe how effective communication may have a positive impact on the lives of individuals with sensory loss

Effective communication will change the attitude of the individuals and will make them function properly.

2.3 -Explain how information can be made accessible to individuals with sensory loss

Information can be availed by developing and submitting brochures and other related information to the individuals.

Know the main causes and conditions of sensory loss

3.1 -Outline the main causes of sensory loss

Sensory loss can be by accident or by genetic reasons.

3.2 -Explain the difference between congenital acquired sensory loss

Congenital acquired sensory loss is some thing acquired during birth and others during the life time.

3.3 -State what percentage of the general population is likely to have sensory loss

It is increasing now a days, in veterans of more than 70 years there is sensory loss in about 70% of individuals.

Know how to recognise when an individual may be experiencing sight and/or hearing loss

4.1 -Outline the indicators and signs of: – sight loss – deafblindness – hearing loss.

sight loss not able to see properly, recognize the colors and individuals., deaf people may not able to hear properly, blindness is total loss of vision, hearing loss – not able to listen properly(Mick et al.,2018).

4.2 -Explain where additional advice and support can be sourced in relation to sensory loss

Sensory loss related information can be availed in any public health centre with eye care clinics. Sensory losses need to be reported based on the objectives. It can be reported by paper or related drafting procedures.

Know how to report concerns about sensory loss

5.1 -Describe to whom and how concerns about sight and/or hearing loss can be reported

Sight and hearing losses to be informed to the employers, carers and caring organizations.

Unit 264 - The Principles of Infection Prevention and Control

Understand roles and responsibilities in the prevention and control of infections

1. Explain employees’ roles and responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection

Prevention and control of the infection is the responsibility of both employees and employers. Employees need to follow all the necessary precautions to overcome the infection. They need to oblige all the necessary healthy precautions and also they need to take up the necessary vaccination and health precautions as needed.

2. Explain employers’ responsibilities in relation to the prevention and control of infection

Employers should provide health care, should keep the premises and work environment clean and tidy. Should restrict any type of health problems from occurring in the environment.

Understand legislation and policies relating to prevention and control of infections

3. Outline current legislation and regulatory body standards which are relevant to the prevention and control of infection

Health safety and control as per Epidemiol Health 2017 standards, Regular health policies also will work for the betterment of infectious controls

4. Describe local and organisational policies relevant to the prevention and control of infection

Local policies will be in control of the local health centers and the overall epidemic control strategies normally equipped by federal health care agencies. Prevention and control funding will be done by the concerned authorities as well.

Understand systems and procedures relating to the prevention and control of infections

5. Describe procedures and systems relevant to the prevention and control of infection

Procedures and systems will  work on to enforce proper prevention and control of infection. They will be at municipality level, state and national level. Typical policies and procedures will dictate mobilization of the funds, resources and policies for preventing the diseases and their spread as well.

6. Explain the potential impact of an outbreak of infection on the individual and the organization

Outbreak of infection will have morbidity implications, loss of productivity, economic losses, overall health and well being will be disturbed in society.


Understand the importance of risk assessment in relation to the prevention and control of infections

7. Define the term ‘risk’

Risk is anything uncontrollable and uncertain and can have serious implications

8. Outline potential risks of infection within the workplace

Risk of infection include loss of productivity, loss of work, project delays, economic loss etc.

9. Describe the process of carrying out a risk assessment

Risk assessment need to be done based on historical data, work place conditions, availability of resources and other related information. Consideration to all these factors will decide the overall risk of the work place.

10.Explain the importance of carrying out a risk assessment

Risk assessment will work to provide the necessary input for the organization to take up the necessary measures to restrict the disease and to control the infection as well. This will result in formulating the necessary strategies to control the disease.

Understand the importance of using Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) in the prevention and control of infections

11. Demonstrate correct use of PPE

PPE need to be employed as per the need and appropriately for safety . Right ppe for right requirement is the necessity.

12. -Describe different types of PPE

PPE include for disease protection, for work place safety, for climbing heights etc. They depend on the intention of the usage.

13. -Explain the reasons for use of PPE

PPE ensures safety or reduction of the bodily harm to the people.

14. -State current relevant regulations and legislation relating to PPE

Regulations of work place safety and OHS include legislation related to PPE.

15.  -Describe employees’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE

Employee need to use them appropriately as per the need.

16. -Describe employers’ responsibilities regarding the use of PPE

Employer need to avail the right PPE for employees and in sufficient number.

17. -Describe the correct practice in the application and removal of PPE

Correct practice of application and removal of PPE include making use of appropriate usage practices and removing them after the usage. Further safe preservation of PPE is also the necessity for re-use.

18. -Describe the correct procedure for disposal of used PPE

Used PPE need to be disposed as per the working conditions to which it is employed. If used for hazardous conditions like Radiation protection, they need to be disposed as per radiation disposal standards, other PPE need to be disposed as per the usage and can be recycled as well(Hancock,2016).

Understand the importance of good personal hygiene in the prevention and control of infections

19.  -Describe the key principles of good personal hygiene

Good personal hygiene can be obtained by safe practices and healthy habits.

20.  -Describe the correct sequence for hand washing

Hands need to be applied with soap or disinfectant solution, rubbed and washed. Followed by drying with hand dryer or towel.

21. -Explain when and why hand washing should be carried out

Hand washing is necessary before eating, after coming from toilet and when handled hazardous substances.

22. -Describe the types of products that should be used for hand washing

Hand washing to be done with soaps, detergents, towels, liquids of sanitization(Rodgers et al.,2015).

23. -Describe correct procedures that relate to skincare

Skin care depends on working conditions, moisturizer to be employed to protect from sun and sun burns, In winter, protection to be employed for skin rashes. The correct substance to be employed for protection like ointments for wounds, anti-bacteria substances for infections etc.


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