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Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Paper Assignment

Impact of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as perceived by management and staff at the Nadesar Palace Varanasi.

Solution:

Abstract:

About the research topic:
The research topic is about the impact of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as perceived by the managers and the staffs of Nadesar Palace, Varanasi. In this research, the main focus will be on perceiving the thinking of the management and the staffs of the boutique hotel on the necessity to meet with the level of satisfaction of the customers and to assess the process by which the loyal customers can be increased. In this way, the present strategy of the hotel and the gaps in the services will be identified as well. Along with this, with the help of the theoretical data that will be collected through the secondary resources, the proper solutions for the issues will be identified as well. Data will be also collected from the primary resources and in this research; the primary sources will be the managers and the staffs of the boutique hotel in the discussion. Interview method will be used to collect the data from these participants and then these data will be analyzed further. After the completion of each of the analysis, the findings will be derived. This will lead to the conclusion of this research and lastly, some recommendations will be provided to solve the research problem.

Structure of the research:
This research will start with the introduction section in which the background and the problems of this research will be defined. This will be followed by the aims, objectives, and questions that will be followed in this research. The next section to follow will be the literature review. This section will be based on the collection and analysis of the secondary data. The next section will be the methodology and the section will define the research philosophy, approach, and methods that will be used. In this section, there will be a detailed discussion about the process of data collection, sampling, and analysis. The justification for the process will be also provided. These will be followed by the ethical considerations of this research and will define the process by which the ethics of data collection has been maintained. Then, the focus will be on defining the significance and limitations of the data collection method. Lastly, in this section, the challenges of data collection will be mentioned. This section will be followed by data analysis and findings and will provide a detailed analysis of the primary data. The last section of this dissertation will be the conclusions and recommendations.

Findings:
After the analysis of the data, it will be found that the hotel needs to improve its customer services and needs to follow the standards of successful boutique hotels around the world. Along with this, suggestions will be given to improve the training for the staffs and the way the gaps in the services can be closed with success. The findings will be also based on the weakness of the hotel in terms of implementing innovative strategies and on the steps that have been perceived by the management and the staffs to satisfy the customers and retain them efficiently.

Introduction:

Idea about the topic:
In the case of the hospitality industry, proper customer service is a necessity and impacts on customer satisfaction. This is because the customers expect the value for their money from the organizations of this industry. The expectations become higher especially in the case of the boutique hotels. This is because of the fact that the customers who prefer staying at the boutique hotels also expect a luxurious service while staying (Arifin, Ahmad and Jamal 2018). It is an important task from the part of the management and the boutique hotels to assess the expectations of the customers. Authors Debashish and Dey (2015) took the example of an luxury hotel in Odisha, India to assess the perception of the customers. They used SERVQUAL model to demonstrate the findings. This helped them to find that proper services from the staffs impact highly on the customer satisfaction in such hotels. It is equally important to find the tangible and intangible factors which define the success of customer satisfaction in the boutique hotels (Xuan 2019). Customers tend to get attracted to the boutique hotels mainly for their unique structures, facilities and services and thus, it is the responsibility of the management and staffs to meet with those requirements with success (Baltescu and Boscor 2016). However; the problem arises when this management and staffs are not aware of the type of services that are mandatory for attracting the customers and retaining them. This can happen due to lack of planning and insufficient training. All these issues impact negatively on customer satisfaction. The management and the staffs need to understand and perceive the impact of these factors and thus, need to meet with the needs of the customers.

This research is based on the perception of the staffs and management of Nadesar Palace Varanasi about the impact of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty on the success of the hotel. Varanasi being a historical place of India attracts both domestic and foreign tourists. Therefore; the hospitality industry in this area is of high demand. Nadesar Palace being a boutique hotel in this beautiful place tends to attract the customers and therefore the demand for this hotel is always high. However; there has been a steep increase in the competition among the organizations of the hospitality industry of Varanasi.

Problem statement:
The problem is about the challenges that these boutique hotels face in the process of train their management and staffs to provide the high-quality service which can help in attracting and retaining the customers.

Aim of the research:
This research aims to assess the impact of the quality of services which helps in increasing customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty in Nadesar Palace, Varanasi.

Objectives of the research:
The research objectives are as following:
• To provide a critical review of the theoretical data which help in measuring the quality of service, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the boutique hotels
• To assess all the tangible as well as intangible factors which influence customer satisfaction in the boutique hotels
• To assess all the tangible as well as intangible facilities which are present in Nadesar Palace, Varanasi
• To analyze and assess the perception of the management and staffs of Nadesar Palace, Varanasi about the impact of customer satisfaction and loyalty
• To provide conclusion and recommendations about the process by which Nadesar Palace, Varanasi can improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.

Research questions:
The questions that will be the base for this research are as follows:
• What are the methods for measuring the quality of service, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the boutique hotels?
• What are the tangible as well as intangible factors which influence customer satisfaction in the boutique hotels?
• What are the tangible as well as intangible facilities which are present in Nadesar Palace, Varanasi?
• What are the perceptions of the management and staffs of Nadesar Palace, Varanasi about the impact of customer satisfaction and loyalty?
• What are the processes by which Nadesar Palace; Varanasi can improve customer satisfaction and loyalty?

Contribution of the objectives to the existing knowledge:
The objectives that have been defined will help in reaching the main findings that would help in completing this research. In this regard, the theoretical data about the customer satisfaction and loyalty in the boutique hotels will help in the collection of the secondary data, which in turn will be helpful in comparing with the analysis on Nadesar Palace. The tangible and the intangible factors of customer satisfaction and loyalty will help in finding the necessary requirements that the boutique hotels should meet with to meet with the satisfaction levels of the customers (Xuan 2019). These factors will be compared with those that are present currently in Nadesar Palace. The perception of the management and staffs of Nadesar Palace will help in the collection of the primary data. These data will be extremely helpful in the process of assessing and finding the improvements that they will require to satisfy the customers. Lastly, recommendations will be provided which will be based on the strategies that the boutique hotel can apply in the process of improving their customer services. Therefore; with the proceedings of this research, the focus will be on collecting the data which will help in meeting with the objectives.

Importance of the research:
The data that will be collected for analysis will help in deriving the present problem in the boutique hotel and will further help in assessing the proper solutions to solve the problems. The data will be based on the methods used by the boutique hotels globally and then the solutions will be implemented by assessing the perceptions of the staffs and management of the boutique hotel in the discussion.

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Literature review:

Introduction:
This section will provide the analysis of the secondary data that would be collected from different articles which are relevant to the research topic. In this process, there will be a critical evaluation of the articles that will be considered for secondary research. The data will be assessed in accordance with the defined objectives.
The first question has been directed by Boon-Itt and Rompho (2012) and Keshavarz et al (2015).
The second question has been directed by Kim, Vogt and Knutson (2015)
The third question has been directed by Maric et al (2016)
The fourth question has been directed by Ruswanti (2017)
The fifth question has been directed by Wu et al (2012)

Customer satisfaction and loyalty in the hotel industries:
In the cut throttle competition, organizations must provide services to get an edge with the rivals. In hotel industries, the organizations should provide competitive service that satisfies the customers and attain maximum satisfaction in terms of working towards quality services. Service quality is the life of hotel industries and it works as the major feature to gain customer satisfaction. Customer loyalty is built with the help of customer satisfaction and customer satisfaction is received with the help of quality services that the organization provides to its customers (Zeithaml 2009). Thereby the circle of quality service, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty is considered in the business. An evaluation of these concepts is important as it helps to focus on the impact of the business. Service quality is an impact of evaluation of the services provided by the organization and service prospect. Author Al-Msallam (2015) discussed the contribution of customer satisfaction and brand value of the hotels in terms of enhancing customer loyalty. In this aspect, if the hotels are able to maintain their value, then most of the customers get automatically attracted to those and tend to visit the hotels a number of times. Along with this, it is also essential for the hotels to analyze customer satisfaction and thus, the strategies can be made as such that both customer satisfaction and brand value can be maintained simultaneously.

Service quality
Several requirements tend to measure the level of service quality provided by the organization to its customers. The user requirements for service quality are reliability, tangibility, responsiveness, security, credibility, competence, service accessibility, etc. A five dimension service quality scale represents the major importance of service quality in the hotel industry. The five dimensions are reliability, responsiveness empathy, tangibility, and assurance. There is a higher correlation that is mentioned between the aspects and is largely connected towards customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Explained by Amin 2013, the hotel industry is related to service quality and tends to ensure a better construct while creating a service environment. As for the organizations in the service sector, higher service quality should be provided to ensure competitiveness in the service industry. With a higher level of service quality, a major expectation of customer satisfaction is acquired which is the major ingredient that impacts the business and hotel industries. It is thereby important that managers and entrepreneurs of the hotel industry should focus on customer satisfaction and understand the need for services that customers need in hotel industries. Authors Molina-Azorin et al (2015) highlighted the importance of maintaining a high quality of service in the hotel industry in the view of achieving a competitive advantage. Service quality has become extremely important in the hotel industry with the increase of the competition and the strategies on brand value should be based on the improvement of the customer service. Author Dhar (2015) describes the importance of employee training as an important factor for improving the service quality in the hotel industry. If the hotels are able to provide the staffs with the required training on customer service, then their performances also improve significantly which helps in managing the service quality efficiently as well.

According to Liat (2014), services need to be provided continuously as the higher-level services are provided so is the impact on customer satisfaction. Premium service quality is the need in which competitive advantage is taken by the organizations to fulfill the required services with trust and belief of customers. Intangible and tangible services are the different criteria that help in business success and growth. The number of intangible services that an organization provides is relatively important as it helps to gain customer loyalty and solves all the problems that are related to customer satisfaction including financial problems of the organization (Boon-itt & Rompho 2012). The satisfaction level of users and customers increases with an increase in service quality as Hilton is the brand name in the hotel industry and considers to provide high-quality services to the customers. Premium service is the pivotal need of the customers to be fulfilled while evaluating the performance of the business and customer satisfaction rate. There is a correlation between customer satisfaction and quality services in the organization which tends to build strong and long term relationship among customers and organizations. There is certain evidence that helps to classify the business activities in providing reliable, tangible and physical services to customers. There is a brief explanation that tends to focus on understanding the need of customers and building trust and confidence among customers.

Service quality to be provided to customers directly impacts customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. There is a content feeling that is compared with the results and perception of the business in terms of service expectation. Total satisfaction concept is largely evaluated with customer service provided in terms of business expectations. Quality largely comprises of several matters that tend to determine the service results by customers and consider the expectations of customers. The customer is the king judges the level of quality of the firm and the perception is created in terms of total quality satisfaction or dissatisfaction (Liao 2012). A degree of purchase arises in terms of interacting with the customer and providing the best service that the customer could get in service quality. Several dimensions are addressed in service quality which is based on physical appearance, communication skills, and equipment to be provided to the customers. Physical appearance is considered in the service providing measures and focuses on several surroundings that address the real evidence of the business. Surrounding of the company, infrastructure and several aspects are considered in physical appearance which is largely addressed as the basis of perception. The second feature that is mostly highlighted is the reliability of the product that ensures company policies and targets the business with accurate and consistent expectation. Organizations need to fit business expectations while considering performance measure and zero-error service that highlight the strength of the business.

According to Al-Rousan (2010), Customer satisfaction includes timely performance and highly accurate services that are quick and responsive to customers' needs and demands. It is important that an organization equally ensures that customer complaints are highly addressed and customers are ready to focus towards serving customers in the best possible way which is important to maintain the business conduct and services. Assurance is the next feature that highlights the service quality of the organization. It is as important to fulfill customer requirement as it is to assure the customers to provide the best services and the security of tools and equipment that are used by the customers. However, it raises customer trust and belief which is the basis of customer satisfaction rate (Lee, Sun, Wu & Xiao 2018). A high concern, friendly environment and promising approach are offered by the business in terms of providing security to the customer. Building customer trust is the major assurance that customers will provide basic and priority services as per the business ethics. The major feature that the organization provides to the customer is in the form of empathy. Empathy is the readiness to focus on employer and employee service to have an understanding of customers needs. Empathy is the major focus that is the combination of including benefits to the service and focusing on communication with customer while obtaining the output of the organization. customers willingness and need are to be addressed with service quality measures.

Customer satisfaction
According to Karunaratne & Jayawardena (2010), Customer satisfaction is the level of satisfaction that a customer feels while using a particular service or product. The level of service quality may impact positive or negative for the customer. There is dissatisfaction that is achieved when the service quality is not as per the perceived standards and expectation of the customer. The effort of fulfilling the needs of customers is addressed with a cognitive situation which tends to obtain the results of the organization in terms of customer loyalty. Customer satisfaction plays a significant role in the business and it creates a big difference in the business as customer's satisfaction rate involves organization success (Rao & Sahu 2013). The expectation is an internal feeling through which the quality of product or service is judged by customers with due impact of physical environment, and services. There is a particular level of satisfaction that is to be maintained by hotel industries in terms of services to be provided to customers. Service providers in hotel industry largely tend to focus on continuous and effective services that help to provide customer loyalty. Authors Kimm, Vogt and Knutson (2015) highlighted the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. In this regard, if the customers are being satisfied, then there can be high possibilities can those customers can be retained as well. This also improves customer loyalty significantly in the hotel industry. Therefore; for the organizations of the hotel industry, customer satisfaction should be the key and this would define the extent to which these hotels can be successful in increasing the numbers of loyal customers with success.

As explained by Minh (2015), the higher customer satisfaction, higher is the customer loyalty that service organizations get. This is the important element that the marketer should consider while providing service quality to the customer. Based on the influence of understanding the needs of customers, service is provided and thereby customer satisfaction is relevant towards the performance of the organization. Authors Abukhalifeh and Som (2015) analyzed the methods that the luxury hotels in Jordan apply for meeting with the satisfactory level of the customers. According to the authors, these hotels perceive the level of satisfaction for the guest and further compares it with the own performances on customer service. This process helps them significantly to keep updated on the customers services of the luxury hotels. On the other hand, authors Mohsin and Lockyer (2010) discussed about the importance evaluating own performance and find the gaps in the services. They took the examples of the customer services in the luxury hotels of New Delhi. An evaluation process is made by the organizations to ensure the level of customer satisfaction with the feedback process. If customer satisfaction is not according to the expected results, organizations need to perform in the best possible way which helps to design and analyze the core aspects. Some errors tend to improve in hotel industry immediately while receiving the feedback of the guests in the hotel. There is disconfirmation pattern that is analyzed in the business while accurate analysis will provide a true picture of the business. Customer satisfaction can be below the expectation of customers which tends to explain the service quality needed in the organization. 96% of the customers are happy while purchasing services from The Taj residency Mumbai. The reason for the success of a service organization is service quality.

According to Ruswanti (2017), customer satisfaction is a feeling that is evaluated by organizations and is compared in terms of expected results of quality services. Several criteria enhance measuring the level of satisfaction of customers. For measuring the level of customer satisfaction, satisfaction, content, novelty and relived are the important criteria in the business. Satisfaction includes the feeling in which customer is happy with the goods and services that the organizations provide to the customers. Authors Jasinskas et al (2010) highlighted the importance of using SERVQUAL model for analyzing the satisfaction level of the customers and their expectations from the service of the hotel. The model can be used and so as its components for developing proper strategies for different segments of customers. Different criteria tend to enhance and highlight the issues of the organization which largely depicts the service quality and customer satisfaction level. Different phases measured to focus on the stage of development which largely signifies the relationship between service organization and customer. At the same time, customer satisfaction brings long term loyalty which is beneficial for both the parties.

According to authors Alnaser et al (2018) SERVQUAL model has the ability to maintain the subjective norms which in turn is extremely useful for enhancing customer satisfaction. It also helps significantly on increasing customer loyalty which is an important requirement and success factor of customer satisfaction in the organizations. On the other hand authors Minh et al (2015) discussed about the use of the model for increasing the reliability for the customers. This means that, it is always possible to make the services reliable for all the customers. Therefore; the ability of the performances of the business increases with the reliability in the customer service in the hotel industry. Authors Khuong and Dai (2016) highlighted that with the use of SERVQUAL model, it is always possible to enhance the responsiveness of the customer service. This means that the staffs of the hotel would be willing to serve the customers with enhanced services.

Authors Ninarun and Wongeedee (2019) analyzed that by following the SERVQUAL model, the hotel organizations can make their staffs caring and attentive for the customers. In this way, they can increase the customer satisfaction as well. Authors Keshavarz et al (2015) identified that LODGSERV model is an important technique that can be used by the hotel industry for increasing the service quality and hence the customer satisfaction. The outcome quality of the services can also increase significantly with the use of this model in the hotel industry. Therefore; the management of Nadesar hotel can make use of this model to enhance the service quality for different groups of customers. It would also help in increasing the standards of the services with perfection.

Customer loyalty
As explained by Wu (2012), customer loyalty in service organization plays an important role in service organizations. Customer retention is observed when customers are loyal and repurchase the goods and services from the same organization. Repurchase of goods and services is possible when service quality is satisfactory for the customers. Thereby, organizations need to focus on quality service and service improvement. There is a positive attitude that customers feel towards the service. Two magnitudes are observed in customer loyalty. These magnitudes are behavioral and attitudinal. The customer repurchases the brand in terms of behavioral magnitude in the form of goods and services that have satisfied the customer's needs. In the form of attitudinal magnitude, loyalty and recommendations play an integral role. It is thereby the major sign of customer loyalty in which repurchase and recommendations to friends and family is the next positive initiative by the customer. In this way, service organizations have provided a greater impact with the help of the services and goods that enhance the level of understanding of customers. Customer repurchase is appreciated for sales volume and profitable business as the organizations do not have to work hard to attract customers. Potential, customers are already attracted and have a benefit of the service while repurchasing the service for surprises and experiences. However, it is an important variable to consider the proposed results of hotel organizations while evaluating the service that has been a repurchase. Hilton hotels in Singapore have a record of managing the data in software which ensures the level of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the form of repurchase of service. Hilton provides world-class service that ensures customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The repeat purchase observed in Hilton Singapore is 69.4% which is relatively a benefit for the organization. The service organizations should thereby ensure that the services should be valued and tend to provide a higher repurchase behavior (Rather & Sharma 2017). Variety of products and product differentiation will enhance customer loyalty. Loyalty is thereby a fidelity that arises with experience and efforts to be created with customer influence or customer experience.

According to Saleem and Sarfaraz (2014), the customer tends to consider the importance of service or goods while it is largely associated with repurchase behavior. The brand loyalty of the organization represents the commitment that a customer creates in terms of service satisfaction. Each time when a customer purchases the service or goods, an evaluation is made to repurchase the product or not to accept the product soon. There are ways in which customer satisfaction is measured. Feedback is one such measure that is taken to evaluate the information about customer's need and quality experience. There is a psychological commitment that is addressed in terms of brand loyalty and ensures brand repeat. Re-ordering is the success criteria that are measured in terms of customer loyalty. These are few success dominations that are addressed while measuring customer loyalty and focusing on service level. There is a continuous promotion that is addressed in terms of persuading customers and analyzing the needs of customers. Service organizations tend to represent the term loyalty while providing reasons for continuous services. Buying the products and services end to exclusively create demand and recommend company products to family and friends. Loyalty is thereby a traditional way that addresses the success and growth of the company in terms of acquiring and retaining customers while providing the customers with the best of the products and services (Kandampully, Zhang and Bilgihan 2015). Repeated purchase and recommendations ensure that enthusiastic measures and dedication is provided by service organizations while this is the dream of service providers. There is a certain degree of support that is created with supportive actions to be taken by the commitment of customers. Loyal customers are happy customers when there an indication of repurchase or recommendations. Customer loyalty is addressed with several assumptions such as the function of psychological processes, bias results, effective decision-making process, behavioral response ad overtime purchase. Loyal customers are addressed to be the contributors to the organization as there is no extra expense or services to attract customers. Most service organizations have customer data that consists of offers and discounts to be provided to repetitive customers. This will enhance as a strong predictor that drives profitable condition and impacts business success. According to authors Ahmad, Hemdi and Othman (2017), for maintaining the customer loyalty, it is important for the boutique hotels to maintain the attributes and understand the behavior of the customers so that the services can be provided as per their expectations and requirements. This is important because if the behavior is assessed well, then there can be a high possibility that the changes in the expectations of the customers can be assessed successfully as well.

Conclusions:
In case of the primary research, the data that have been collected are based on the assessment of the customer loyalty and satisfaction that can be implemented in the hotel industry. Therefore; even the management and staffs of Nadesar hotel can also learn about the steps and the techniques which can help in enhancing the quality of the service. Models like SERVQUAL can be extremely useful and can help in increasing the reliability and quality of the services offered for the customers. In the hotel industry, the use of the models and the theories can be extremely beneficial and these benefits have been assessed through the literature review part of the study. There has been analysis on the effective practices that have been implemented by some of the successful boutique hotels around the world. This helped in understanding the gaps in the current customer satisfaction and service quality practices in Nadesar hotel. Along with this, there also has been discussions about the importance of customer loyalty in the boutique hotel industry and on how service quality impact of the increase of customer loyalty in the industry.

Methodology:

Introduction:
This section of the research will provide the methodology that will be used for collecting, sampling and analysis of the data. This section is going to be extremely important as it will discuss the methods by which further research will be completed. Therefore; the philosophy of this research and the approach that will be followed will describe the types of data that will be considered and the methods of analysis that will be conducted. A brief description of the process of collection of data will be given in this section. Along with this, the techniques of sampling will be also highlighted. These will be followed by the description of the significance and limitations of the methodology. The validity of the data will be also highlighted and there will a discussion on why the collected data are reliable. The ethics of this methodology will be also described in details. The challenges associated with the process of data collection and analysis will be defined along with the solutions that have been applied to solve those challenges.

Research philosophy:
Interpretivism philosophy will be used for this research as the focus will be on using the qualitative data and therefore; the data will be based on the detailed view of the participants. The data will be socially constructed and will provide a better understanding of the research objectives and questions (Antwi and Hamza 2015). The data that will be collected will be specific and unique ones and therefore; it will be possible to derive the required findings without further efforts. The philosophy will help in following the natural methods of data collection and the data will be in details which will further help in proper analysis.

Research approach:
In the process of conducting data collection and analysis, the inductive approach will be used. This is because there will be no hypotheses for this research and the data will be based on the research objectives and the questions (Liu 2016). The data that will be considered for the research will be specific and therefore; will be based on the theories and the perception of the participants from whom the data will be collected. There will be analysis of the collected data and the result will be derived based on the real world theories and the thinking of the society. Moreover, due to the use of the qualitative data, the inductive approach will be more suitable for this research.

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Research method:
In the process of conducting this research, the importance will be given on collecting the primary as well as secondary data. However; qualitative methods will be chosen for both the types of data. This is because the focus will be on collecting the theoretical and descriptive data rather than statistics or numeric based. Therefore; it will be important to use the qualitative data for further analysis of the data. The primary data will be based on the theories and the global analysis of the customer service in the boutique hotels whereas the secondary data will be based on the perspectives of the real world people. In this regard, the qualitative data will provide detailed perceptions of the managers and the staffs. If quantitative data would have been chosen, then most of the data would have been statistical or numeric ones. Those data would not have helped in understanding the problems in details. Quantitative data is only used for those research in which there is a requirement of measuring the performances or measuring the perceptions or thinking of different groups of participants (Goertzen 2017). This is not required in case of this research as the overall views of the participants will be considered. Along with this, the secondary data will be also qualitative ones and will be based on the detailed theories and analysis of the issues and their solutions.

Data collection:
This is the most important part of this research and in this part; there will be a description of the methods by which the data will be collected from different sources. First of all, the focus is on collecting the data from secondary resources. The secondary resources are in the form of the relevant articles that discuss the topic of the research. All the sources of the secondary data have been formed the recent articles and some journals have been included as well. The secondary data and their analysis have been provided in the literature review part of this research. The data that have been collected from these resources are qualitative ones and are descriptive in nature (Johnston, 2017). Secondly, the primary data have been collected from the managers and staffs of the boutique hotel and those are qualitative as well. The primary data have been in the form of the answers from the interviews taken and has been on the basis of the perspectives of the managers and staffs on the impact of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the boutique hotel. 5 managers and 10 staffs of the hotel have been chosen for the interview and their answers have been stored separately. The data have been processed for further sampling and analysis. The managers and the staffs have been asked questions about the current scenario of services that are provided to the customers and the way they perceive the satisfaction levels of the customers. The questions have been asked separately to both these groups of participants. That is the interview sessions have been different for the managers and the staffs. The questions for the managers have been mostly on the basis of management and the questions for the staffs have been mostly on the basis of the services that they are providing to the customers. Due to the fact, the qualitative analysis and interview methods have been used for this research, therefore; all the questions are open-ended ones (Castillo-Montoya 2016). The interviews have been taken offline and have been recorded and stored for the purpose of sampling and analysis. These separate data have been further used for sampling process which will be discussed in the next section.

Data sampling:
Sampling of the data is an important step in the research methodology and in this step; it is ensured that the data gets sampled properly for assisting in further analysis. In this research, purposive sampling has been used so that the data of all the participants can be equally used for the process of analysis (Etikan, Musa and Alkassim 2016). In this process, both the primary and the secondary data have been sampled separately so that the analysis can be made by comparing these data with efficiency. Along with this, the data of the managers and the staffs also have been sampled separately so that both these type of data can be assessed separately to find the proper conclusions at the end of this research.

Data analysis:
After the completion of the sampling method, the next process that has been used for the research is the data analysis. In this method, the focus has been on analyzing the sampled data separately and for finding the detailed results of the analysis. The data that have been collected from the interview have been assessed separately and the findings will be provided in the data analysis section of this research. The qualitative analysis has been conducted in the vision of getting the detailed findings and those findings will be linked with the objectives of this research at the end. Due to the presence of detailed data for analysis, ATLAS.ti has been used for conducting the analysis (Friese 2019). This tools helped in managing the data efficiently and then assessment has been made for each of the data set.

Significance of the data collection and analysis:
The data that have been collected can be considered as highly significant because of the fact that these data have been specific and relevant to the objectives that have been set. The questions of the interview have been prepared based on those objectives and for assessing the thinking of the participants on the research issues. For the secondary analysis, the data have been based on the relevant information and have been on the basis of the research objectives. The overall process of data collection has been by considering the contribution of the data for the research.

Justification of the data collection method:
The justification of the methodology that has been used can be described by assessing the value that it would provide to this research. The methodology that has been selected is apt with the nature and quality of data that would be used for conducting the analysis. In this regard, the qualitative analysis will help in defining the objectives in details and further for achieving the detailed findings and conclusions. Due to the fact that for conducting this research, the detailed perspectives of the participants are going to be highly essential, therefore; qualitative analysis has been selected rather than selecting the qualitative analysis. Moreover, interpretivism philosophy has been selected in the view of collecting social data rather than scientific data (Ngulube 2015). The data are mostly based on the perceptions of the real world participants and therefore; this philosophy is extremely important. Secondly, the inductive approach has been used in the process of describing the data in details and for giving focus on the issues and the solutions rather than on the hypotheses (Alase 2017). The participants that have been selected are being justified with the value that they can provide for this research. This is because; the research is based on the perception of the management and the staffs of the boutique hotel. They are the ones who deal with the customers more often and therefore; their perceptions are of high value for conducting the analysis in this research. In the case of the secondary data, the valuable and relevant articles have been selected and have been analyzed in the literature review part of this research. The process of data collection has been thus valuable and the strategies on the data collection have been made as such that those will help in reaching the aims and objectives of this research.

Validity and reliability of the data:
The data that have been collected are extremely reliable and this is due to the fact that these data have been collected from the real world participants and the staffs and management of the real hotel in the discussion. The data have not been taken from any invalid or irrelevant resources. Along with this, the consent of the participants has been taken before the start of the interview sessions and therefore; the data that they have provided can be mostly considered as true and believable. The secondary data that have been collected are reliable and valid as well. This is because of the fact that those have been taken from reliable resources after conducting thorough analysis and research. Along with this, as discussed earlier, these data have been up to date and are related to the research topic. Moreover; the quality of data has been maintained throughout and it was ensured that the data would be collected in accordance with the set objectives of this research. The validity of this research can be also considered due to the fact that the data have been based on the current scenario of the industry of boutique hotels and even the solutions that have been assessed with the help of secondary resources are based on the global solution. These will be helpful in the process of comparing with the issues of the boutique hotel in the discussion. Lastly, proper solutions can be derived after the end of the research. Interview questions were prepared after conducting research and study about the probable data that the researchers require to conduct this research with success. Thus, questionnaires were prepared and 10 questions were prepared for each of the groups of participants.

Limitations of the data collection:
In the process of data collection, the difficulties came in the form of engaging the participants for the interviews. This is because of the fact that they were extremely busy serving their customers and therefore; it was difficult for them to spend some time for the interview. However; before conducting the interviews, the HR team of the hotel was contacted through email and the request was made for the interview. In this process, the purpose of the interview was made clear to the HR team and the requirements of the participants were also mentioned. However; the number of people who participated in the interview was much lesser than the expectation. This is because of the tight schedule they had while working in the boutique hotel. Therefore; in this regard, the number of participants was low and so as the amount of data that would have required to complete the analysis with perfection. However; the data were sufficient enough to conduct the analysis. Moreover; due to lack of time, the interview sessions were required to be completed in a short time. Therefore; it was not possible to wait for the other participants to participate in the interview. However; these participants were interviewed separately and their answers were also recorded for further analysis. Another limitation that came for this research was the low budget. It was extremely difficult to arrange the budget for the project and the process of interviews required visiting the boutique hotel at a number of times. However; the budget was managed within limited expenditures and the results that have been derived have been sufficient enough to match with the quality of a research project.

Ethical considerations:
In the process of conducting this research, it was important to maintain ethics. This is because; if the ethics were not maintained, then it could have resulted in a bad reputation and even the issue of privacy of the participants (Kara and Pickering 2017). In the process of data collection, the first ethics that was maintained was not to reveal the identity of any of the participants. This is because; different participants have different perspectives on a similar issue. The thinking of all the participants may not match with each other and if their identity gets revealed, then the problem can occur in terms of conflicts between them and even conflict between the managers and the staffs. This is the reason why each of the participants was interviewed separately and the data that have been collected from these participants have been kept secret. Moreover, the data that have been collected are solely on the basis of the perceptions of the participants. This means that none of the data have been altered or even modified during the process of sampling and analysis. The data have been accurate and as per the information provided by the participants during the interview sessions. This has been similar even in the case of the secondary data as well. This means that the data that have been collected from the secondary resources have been exact and according to the perception of the authors associated with the articles. This process will help in ensuring the privacy of the information and the participants and will also help in not disclosing the personal information of any of the participants who have been associated with the data collection. Personal perceptions or thinking of the researchers were never used in the process of data analysis of this research. Written consents were taken from each of the participants before the interview and none of them were forced at any point of time on participating in the research or on altering their thoughts on the research issues.

Data storage and security:
For maintaining the ethics of the data collection, it was important to ensure that data that have been collected and stored would be safe and would not be accessed by any unauthorized people. In this regard, the security of this data has been extremely essential. Therefore; for maintaining the security, the data have been stored and kept in a secured area and none of the unauthorized people have access to the systems. This will ensure that the exact data would be maintained and there would be no alteration. Those data would be deleted or transferred to other storage after the end of this research. The required security measures were implemented in the systems and the storage devices in which the data were stored. Risk analysis was conducted in this regard and therefore; it was ensured that the data would be fully safe and secured.

Challenges in the data collection:
In the process of collecting the primary data, the researchers faced many challenges and obstacles. Due to the presence of short time and low budget, it was difficult to travel and take interviews from the management and staffs of the hotel. Due to the fact that this is a luxurious hotel, therefore; it was required to take permissions from the management which took a long time. Moreover; the difficulties also came in the form of scheduling the interview sessions for the staffs separately. This is because; each of the participants had separate time when they were free to take part in the interview. It was not possible to conduct the interview online as detailed perceptions of the participants were required and along with this, it was not possible to conduct a proper interview session online. Therefore; the only option that was left for the participants was to take offline interviews with the participants. Moreover; during the process of interviews, some of the participants denied on answering some of the questions and this made difficult for the researchers to gather the proper data as per requirements. However; at the end of the interview sessions with all the participants, it was ensured that the data that have been collected would be used for conducting the analysis with perfection. The challenges were thus overcome and the research analysis was conducted as per the planning on this research.

Steps used for overcoming the challenges:
The challenges were high in the process of conducting the data collection and the analysis. Therefore; it was important to develop proper strategies which would help in overcoming these challenges. The first step that was taken was to analyze the risks that would be involved in the process of data collection (Asselbergs et al 2017). In this process, the risks that have been involved with the budget and time have been identified. Secondly, the risks have been also identified in the process of engaging the management and staffs for the interviews. The risks in ethics and the quality of the data collection have been also identified. The last risk was assessed in the aspect of storage of the data. After the identification of the risks, the first task was to develop the timeline and budget for the data collection. The next process was to understand the type of resilience that would come from the participants in the process of interviews. Then, the quality of the questionnaires was assured by conducting proper research studies on the probable problems in the boutique hotels. Lastly, the security of the data storage system was ensured and proper security tools were implemented to protect the privacy of the data. The policies of the local area and other policies of data collection and research were also identified. The consent form was documented which was based on the approval of the participants on participating in the interviews and provide their perspectives. All these strategies helped significantly in overcoming the risks that are associated with the data collection and analysis and in the overall research. The challenges were thus mitigated significantly and the research was progressed further.

Conclusions:
This part of the research is extremely important and defined the methods and tools that have been used for conducting the research and for collection of the data. A short introduction was provided at the initial part of this section. Then the research philosophy was discussed along with defining the research approach with details. The next part involved the detailed discussions on the methods that have been applied for the research and for the collection of data. The basis of the data collection has been defined as well which described the process and the type of data that have been collected for this research. Then the process of sampling has been described along with defining the relevancy of the method that has been used. This was followed by a short discussion about the process of data analysis that has been applied for this research. The validity, as well as reliability of the data collection and analysis methods, has been defined as well. Then, the significance and the limitations of this methodology have been discussed which helped in identifying the importance of this data collection method and the difficulties that were faced in the process of collecting the data. The steps of risk analysis in the data collection were also described which helped in justifying the value of this research. The ethical considerations have been included which helped in justifying the ethics that have been followed. Overall, this part will help in progressing into the next part which is about the detailed description of the data analysis and the findings that have been collected after the end of each of the analysis.

Result and analysis:

Introduction:
This section will provide a detailed analysis of the data that have been collected and sampled. In this process, the questionnaires that have been set for the interviews will be used and the perceptions of the participants will be discussed in details. In this process, the perceptions of the managers will be described separately and the perceptions of the staffs will be described separately. Results for each of the questions will be provided as well. The overall result will help in assessing the conclusions for this research. The questions have been different for the two groups of participants and all are open-ended ones which will help in describing the perception in an efficient way. As discussed in the above section, the consents from each of the participants have been taken and documented before the start of the interview sessions. Therefore; it is expected that the answers that they have provided are all according to their thinking and they have not inspired or forced to provide the answers according to the thinking of the third parties. This is the reason; the interview sessions have been closed-door ones and have been conducted by following all the ethics (Dawson et al 2017). In the next part of this section, a detailed analysis of the primary data will be provided. This will be followed by a description of the secondary data that have been provided in the literature review section of this research. A short conclusion will be also provided for this section at the end.

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Data analysis and results for the interview with the managers:
As discussed earlier, 5 managers of the boutique hotel have been approached for this research. The five managers are from the human resource department, customer service department, marketing department, IT department and employee management department. The analysis has been made on the perceptions of all these managers at a single time. The questionnaires and the analysis of the questions are as following:

1. According to your views, what are the expectations of the customers from the boutique hotel in terms of service?

Analysis: The managers perceive that customers who visit the boutique hotel always look for innovative services. They expect the hotel to have a unique design and infrastructures. Most of the tourists from the foreign countries expect them to provide with the facilities that follow the traditions of India as well as the local ones. For example, most of them prefer high-quality Indian foods to be served on traditional utensils. They also prefer the design of the hotel to have the Indian tradition. They are aware of the warm behavior of the people of the country and therefore; they also expect such behavior from the staffs. However; along with these requirements, they expect the hotel and the facilities to be hygienic and clean ones. In the case of the Indian customers, they expect the environment of the hotel to have the unique flavors and looks of the traditions of Varanasi. Due to the fact that most of these visitors spend high for spending time in this hotel, therefore; they always expect the service to be luxurious and innovative ones and different from other hotels in the area. However; many customers tend to have different choices and preference in terms of services and therefore; this hotel aims to provide them with the requirements that would make them satisfied.

Findings:
The perceptions of the managers show that they are well aware of the requirements and expectations of the different types of customers. They also are aware of the perceptions of foreign and domestic customers. That can be considered as a positive aspect from the part of the managers.

2. What are the challenges do you face while providing quality services to the customers?

Analysis: According to the managers, the challenges are high especially at the time of the peak seasons. Challenges come in the form of managing the demands of the customers. This is because many customers have many demands which are difficult to fulfill at most of the time as those are not present in the norms of the business. Along with this, some tourists from the foreign countries expect the facilities and infrastructures of the hotel similar to the hotels present in their countries. However; this hotel has always focused on understanding and respecting the wishes and expectations of the customers. Therefore; efforts are made on serving the customers along with maintaining the business policies. This hotel has always maintained the tradition and due to this, it has been able to attract and retain most of its customers. However; one of the problems that the management of these face is about the high competition from the other hotels in the area. With the growing popularity of Varanasi and its surrounding areas, many new hotels and guest houses have been built with having modern facilities. They are of lower cost than this boutique hotel and thus, they are being successful in attracting the customers. Although, the demands of the boutique hotel among the foreign customers are high, however; this has not been the case for the domestic customers. This may be of the fact that the foreign customers prefer to exploit the local traditions despite the high cost. In order to maintain the tradition of the hotel and for providing the customers with the high-class facilities, the hotel is bound to keep the price on the higher side. Therefore; this is the reason why Nadesar Palace has not been able to attract domestic customers more often. The management can understand the need to update the facilities in order to attract more foreign tourists, however; planning has not been made yet on countering the present challenges.

Findings:
The analysis suggests that although the management has found the related issues and challenges, however; the managers have not been able to find the proper solutions to solve the issues. The problems might be due to ineffective marketing strategies and outdated facilities. In the process of attracting more customers, this hotel may require to update its plan on customer services and then market the business to the target customers efficiently (Ateke 2016).

3. Who are the target customers for your hotel?

Analysis: According to the managers of the company, there are no specific target customers that have been identified. However; Nadesar Palace intends to attract those customers who prefer staying at a luxurious place with high-quality facilities. Therefore; the target customers are mainly the high-class tourists especially from the foreign countries who have the expectations to spend a royal time with the Indian tradition. However; the managers also aim to attract more Indian customers and provide them with the high-quality service in the near future.

Findings:
By assessing the perceptions of the managers about the target customers, it can be identified that along with the foreign customers, they are also expecting the Indian customers to make use of their services and spend quality time in the hotel.

4. According to your views, what are the best processes to increase customer loyalty for this hotel?

Analysis: According to the views of the managers, customer loyalty can be only increased by providing high-quality service throughout the stay and by satisfying their needs. Along with this, communication with the customers post-visit is also highly important as then the customers tend to feel that the staffs of the hotel care for them. A warm reception and gentle behavior from the part of the staffs and managers also help in retaining those customers. This is because; if the customers are satisfied with the behavior of the staffs and management, then most of them would prefer to stay in the same hotel when they would visit the place next time. Therefore; behavior and attitude towards the customers are extremely essential to increase customer loyalty.

Findings:
The findings suggest that management is aware of the methods by which the number of loyal customers can be increased. However; they are still not aware of the steps that they should implement to increase the customer loyalty. The managers understand the behavior and attitude of the staffs towards the customers is extremely essential and so as communication. However; proper strategies have not been implemented yet to make that happen with efficiency.

5. What are the strategies that you have implemented to make the staffs aware of the process by which they can improve the quality of customer service?

Analysis: Staffs are given basic training after they get recruited. The training involves the process by which the customers can be approached and the methods by which communication can be made. The HR manager focuses on recruiting experienced and highly skilled employees rather than making the inexperienced staffs learn the working process from scratch. Assessment is done on the performances of the staffs after the end of each month. This helps the management to understand the contribution provided by each of the staffs on the customer service. Staffs are also provided with various targets which they require to achieve each month and this way, the management assesses the performances of each of these staffs.

Findings:
After conducting the analysis on this question, it has been found that the management does understand the importance of high-quality services from the staffs. However; the problem lies in the fact that the staffs are not provided with proper training and the managers rely hugely on the experiences and skills of the staffs. In this regard, if the hotel wants to improve its customer service in accordance with the modern facilities, it needs to implement high-quality training for these staffs. This will help the staffs become updated and will gain the necessary knowledge about proper customer service.

6. What are the impacts of customer satisfaction and loyalty for Nadesar Palace?

Analysis: The managers perceive that in the process of popularizing the business of Nadesar Palace, customer satisfaction and loyalty is extremely important. According to them, if the hotel is able to improve the customer services, then it would be able to satisfy the customers in a better way along with retaining most of them. This will also help in attracting more customers as the reputation of the hotel and its service will increase and will act as a mode of mouth to mouth marketing. If the number of customers can be retained, then thee customer loyalty will also increase significantly.

Findings:
The findings suggest that the managers of the hotel are aware of the importance of customer satisfaction and loyalty and they can understand the role of quality customer services on retaining the customers with efficiency. This means that the management team needs to be aware of the suitable processes that they could implement to improve their services.

7. How do you think that the hotel can improve its services to its customers?

Analysis: The managers think that the services can be improved with the help of bringing in innovative thinking and by maintaining high-quality facilities for the customers. They believe that they need to be aware of the global success requirements of the boutique hotels and need to identify the gaps in the services. This will assist them in improving the quality of services. The managers also think that proper marketing techniques and improved facilities will help in retaining most of the customers. They need to take the feedback from the customers and these feedbacks will help in understanding the changes that the customers want from them. They also perceive that it will be important to improve the performances of the staffs so that they can contribute better for the success of the business.

Findings:
The findings are in the form of an overview of the thinking of the managers. This shows that the managers are well aware of the required changes, however; do not have the proper planning on the innovative services and lack the knowledge on improving the performances of the staffs. They have understood the importance of taking feedback from the customers and for identifying the gaps in customer services.
In this part, the perceptions of the managers have been analyzed and discussed. In the next part, there will be discussions on the analysis and findings of the perceptions of the staffs of the boutique hotel.

Data analysis and results for the interview with the staffs:
The questions that have been asked to the staffs and the analysis of their answers are as follows:

1. According to your views, what are the expectations of the customers from the boutique hotel in terms of service?

Analysis: Most of the staffs of the boutique hotel perceive that most of the customers look for better services and well behavior from the management and staffs. They love to get pampered and want the staffs to provide them with timely services. In the case of foreign customers, they also expect the staffs to provide them with information about the history of the hotel and thee place. The foreign customers also expect the staffs to provide them with clean services by maintaining hygiene. Most of the foreign customers are extremely sensitive towards the quality of food and the cleanliness of the rooms. On the other hand, the Indian customers expect the staffs to provide them with innovative services and talk smartly with them. Conversations with the customers impact hugely on the review that they provide for the staffs who are on their service.

Findings:

The staffs are well aware of the requirements and the needs of different types of customers. They also understand that communication with the customers is extremely essential to understand their problems and for meeting with their demands.

2. What are the challenges do you face while providing quality services to the customers?

Analysis: According to the perception of the staffs, it is extremely difficult to understand the expectations of some of the customers. Despite providing them with the quality services, in many situations, they do not feel satisfied and thus complain about the staffs to the management. This mostly happens in cases of serving the food, providing them with the type of bed sheets and others. Although the staffs always comply on maintaining the policies of the business, however; sometimes it is difficult for them to deal with such harsh customers. However; according to them, most of the customers are supportive and deal fairly with them. One of the problems that the staffs relented is about communication. Some of the staffs are not fully comfortable on speaking English and they do fumble especially while the conversation with the foreign customers. In such scenarios, they take help from either other staffs or from the managers. This lowers the reputation of them in front of the customers. In this regard, they are concerned about not getting the required training on communication from the management.

Findings:
The findings show that the staffs do face many kinds of problems while serving the customers. Communication is one such key issue which brings in problems for some of these customers. This shows that the management lacks the planning on recruiting the staffs who are fluent in English. Providing training on English may not be possible for the company, however; the issue is that the management neglects the requirements of English for thee staffs and thus, if the problem is not solved efficiently, then it may reflect on the low-quality communication between the staffs and the customers of the hotel. The staffs also lack the proper training on providing different quality of services for a different group of customers. This is also a negative point from the part of the management of the hotel.

3. How do the management deals with the training requirements?

Analysis: The training that is provided to the staffs is not sufficient enough to deal with the demands of the different groups of customers. The importance is only given on the experiences and the knowledge that is known while applying for the job. Training is only given about the facilities available in the hotel and the way those facilities can be provided to the customers. Therefore; according to the perceptions of most of the staffs, the training is not given sufficiently to them which is a major drawback towards the improvement of the customer service.

Findings:
The findings show that the company lacks the planning on providing the staffs with efficient training to develop their skills. It may not be possible for all the staffs to get adjusted with the working environment of a boutique hotel. Therefore; it is quite natural that most of them are facing the problem of providing the required services to the customers. Therefore; it is the responsibility of the management to provide the staffs with the efficient training before letting them start their activities. This will help the staffs to get adjusted with the service quality of a boutique hotel and further for providing the customers with the expected quality of service.

4. According to your views, what are the best processes to increase customer loyalty for this hotel?

Analysis: According to the perceptions of the staffs of the boutique hotel, customer loyalty can be only increased if the customers are provided with the high-quality service and they are satisfied throughout their stay in the hotel. It is important to understand the expectations of the customers and thus, the management needs to develop the strategies which can match the standards of boutique hotels in the world. Customers who are visiting this hotel always expect the facilities and services to be different and traditional as well. Therefore; the staffs believe that if the management is able to improve the service along with maintaining the tradition, then most of the customers would prefer to stay in this hotel on their next trip.

Findings:
The findings show that the staffs are aware of how the customers can be retained and expect the management to improve the strategies on attracting them in a better way. They are aware of the fact that if the satisfaction level of the customers can be met, then they can be retained successfully.

5. What are the impacts of customer satisfaction and loyalty for Nadesar Palace?

Analysis: The staffs think that customer satisfaction and loyalty impact hugely on the success of this boutique hotel. Since its formation, Nadesar Palace has maintained a huge reputation in the country and also among the foreign tourists who prefer to visit India and enjoy the rich tradition and history of the country. In this regard, Nadesar Palace has been able to maintain the facilities which follow the tradition of Varanasi. However; the strategy has mostly helped in attracting foreign customers. The flow of domestic customers is still not up to expectations. Therefore; according to the thinking of the staffs, along with the foreign customers, the management of the hotel should also start planning on attracting and retaining the Indian customers as well. This will help in increasing the business sales along with improving customer loyalty with success. If the customers are satisfied, then their loyalty would be increased automatically. For this, proper training and management of the staffs are going to be extremely important.

Findings:
The findings suggest that along with the management, the staffs are also aware of the importance of customer service and loyalty for the success of this boutique hotel. They are also aware of the importance of attracting both foreign and the Indian customers to increase the flow of customers and for retaining most of them with success.

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6. What are the efforts given the managers to help in improving your performances in terms of customer service?

Analysis: The staffs highlighted although there are reward systems for them such as appraisals and performance monitoring after the end of each month, however; the managers have not implemented any proper methods on assisting the staffs to improve their performances. There are managers in all the departments who take care of the activities of the staffs, however; the effort on performance management has not been efficient enough. Particular targets are given to the staffs which they need to achieve each month. If the targets are achieved consistently throughout the year, then appraisals are given to them.

Findings:
The findings show that the strategy of the management on performance improvement is not an efficient one and that is the reason most of the staffs have not been able to identify their limitations. In this regard, proper reward management is not present for the staffs as well. This can be regarded as a drawback for the managers in terms of managing the performances of the staffs with efficiency. The staffs thus are not satisfied with the way their performances are managed by the management of the hotel and want this to get improved significantly.

The overall analysis:
After conducting the analysis on the perception of the management and the staffs, it is identified that although both are aware of the importance of improving the service quality, however; the planning has not been done efficiently to improve the facilities and the process by which both foreign and domestic customers can be attracted. Both managers and staffs also believe that customer service and customer loyalty are extremely impactful on the success of the business. However; for this, the managers need to be aware of the training requirements of the staffs. Along with this, they also require to take feedbacks from the customers and assess the gaps in the services efficiently. This can help them to match the standards of services of thee boutique hotels around the world.

Analysis with the secondary data:
The secondary data that have been analyzed in the literature review section shows the different theories and data on the aspect of customer satisfaction and loyalty. It has been analyzed that the satisfaction level of the customers hugely depends on the quality of services. Therefore; from the perceptions of the managers and staffs of Nadesar Palace, it is analyzed that they are also aware of this fact and want the services to become high-quality ones. Reliability and security are some of the factors which impact hugely on customer satisfaction and loyalty. In this regard, if the managers can provide the customers with reliable and secured services, then they would be successful to retain them with success. The managers are required to understand the tangible and intangible requirements in a standard boutique hotel and need to compare those which are present currently in their own hotel (Maric et al 2016). This can help them significantly to understand the gaps and thus, strategies can be made to fulfill those gaps efficiently. Along with this, the feedback from the customers also forms an important requirement in the hospitality industry which the managers of the hotel should be aware of (Radojevic, Stanisic and Stanic 2015).

Therefore; both the primary and secondary data show the importance of high-quality services and proper management of the customers, in the process of meeting with the satisfaction level of the customers and to increase their loyalty.
The theories as stated by Boon-Itt and Rompho (2012) and Keshavarz et al (2015) have been analyzed from the 4th question that has been asked to the manager.
The theories as stated by Kim, Vogt and Knutson (2015) have been analyzed from the 6th question asked to the manager and 4th question asked to the staffs.
The theories as stated by Maric et al (2016) have been analyzed from the 5th question asked to the staffs.
The theories as stated by Ruswanti (2017) have been analyzed through the 1st question asked to the managers and the staffs.
The theories as stated by Wu et al (2012) have been analyzed through the 7th question asked to the managers and 4th question asked to the staffs.
The primary research thus has proved all these theories and those have been analyzed through the answers as given by the participants of the interview.

Conclusions:
This section thus helped in conducting the analysis and for assessing the findings of the primary resources. The results of the interview have been elaborated and discussed as the findings. Then, the overall analysis of the primary data has been provided and lastly, those data have been analyzed with the secondary data that were analyzed in the literature review part. It has been also identified that the communication with the customers is a challenge for the staffs and therefore; proper training is required. This can be considered as an important step as the staffs and the management need to communicate with the customers for assessing about their expectations so that the service quality can be made better.

Conclusions and recommendations:
Conclusions:
The findings thus show that it is the responsibility of the staffs and the management of the boutique hotel to assess the perception of the customers. However; in this regard, it is also the responsibility of the management to provide the required support to the staffs for making them trained to improve their service quality. This can be considered as an important requirement as the staffs are the ones who can directly communicate with the customers and satisfy their requirements.

Linking with the objectives:
In this part, the results of the analysis will be linked with each of the research objectives. This will help in determining if the objectives of this research have been successfully met or not.
• Objective 1: To provide a critical review of the theoretical data which help in measuring the quality of service, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in the boutique hotels
This objective was completed in the literature review section and the necessary theories have been provided from the relevant articles that have been used.
• To assess all the tangible as well as intangible factors which influence customer satisfaction in the boutique hotels
This objective has been assessed both in the literature review and the analysis and finding sections of this research. In the case of the literature review section, this objective was analyzed through the data from the articles and in case of the analysis and findings section, this objective was analyzed through the perceptions of the participants.
• To assess all the tangible as well as intangible facilities which are present in Nadesar Palace, Varanasi
This objective has been assessed in the analysis and findings section. The questions that have been asked to the managers and staffs and their answers help in assessing this objective. The results were also provided in the section.
• To analyze and assess the perception of the management and staffs of Nadesar Palace, Varanasi about the impact of customer satisfaction and loyalty
This objective was met with success in the data analysis and findings section and the findings of the analysis were properly discussed in that section.
• To provide conclusion and recommendations about the process by which Nadesar Palace, Varanasi can improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.

This objective is on the progress in this section.

Therefore; after the end of the research, it has been found that all the objectives have been achieved successfully and the necessary findings have been derived as well. This helps in deriving and assuring the success of this research.

Recommendations:
The analysis of the primary data showed that the managers and the staffs of Nadesar Palace are well aware of the requirements that are vital on meeting with the satisfaction of the customers and to retain them with success. However; it has been analyzed that they will require improvement in the aspect of strategies on the customer service. In this aspect, the first step that the managers should implement is to understand the gaps in the services. This can be done in two ways. The first way is to take feedback from the customers and the second way is to benchmark the strategy of customer service that is provided by the successful boutique hotels around the world. In the process of taking the feedback from the customers, the main focus needs to be on asking them about the positive and the negative aspects of the services provided to them. Along with this, they should be also requested to provide the suggestion on the process by which the services can be improved. In this way, the managers will understand the requirements and the expectations of the customers and therefore; the gaps in the services can be identified with success. The gaps can be also identified by assessing the quality of services of the other boutique hotels around the world. The next step that the managers need to use is to train the employees efficiently. It would be also important to use the SERVQUAL model for assessing the service quality and it can be compared with the satisfaction level and expectations of the customers. The staffs should be also trained properly about the methods by which they can provide the customers with advanced services and for maintaining hygiene and cleanliness throughout. The staffs should be also made aware of the importance of taking suggestions from the customers, greet them and communicate with them whenever required. This will help them to maintain a healthy relationship with the customers. If the staffs are able to maintain a healthy relationship with the customers, then there would be likely chances that the customers would be highly satisfied with the services provided to them. This could be the first and the most important way to retain customers with success.

The third step that needs to be implemented is the marketing process by which Indian customers can be attracted as well. In this process, the focus should be on understanding the requirements and expectations of the Indian customers. The target customers need to be identified in this regard and the marketing needs to be done as such that the target customers can be reached with success. In this process, the target customers from India should be those who prefer to stay in luxurious hotels along with the ability to spend a high amount for the luxury. The needs for foreign customers and the Indian customers may be different. Therefore; it will be important for the management of the hotel to understand the differences and thus, the strategies are required to be made as such that the services meet with the expectations of the Indian customers as well. The fourth step that can be applied is in the form of communication with the customers. In this regard, communication needs to be made at the pre-entry and post-exit times. This means that while the customers would visit the website to book their stay or contact them on the query about the bookings and the services, the staffs of the hotel should provide them with all the necessary details and assist them in the process of booking. Along with this, communication will be also extremely important during the visit or stay. The staffs need to communicate with the customers, understand their problems and serve them with the necessary requirements that would satisfy with their needs. Lastly, communication after the stay of the customers is going to be important as well. In this process, the staffs of the hotel should contact the customers and acknowledge them for their stay and then need to provide them with the information about the services and the offers that would be available for them during their next visit. This process will help in engaging the customers even after the end of the visit and there will be likely chances that those customers would visit the hotel again. This is a part of the successful customer relationship management that the hotel needs to apply to successfully retain the customers.

The next step that the managers need to apply is to assess the tangible and intangible factors that would be necessary for them on attracting and retaining the customers. In this regard, the managers need to identify the limitations in the service that they can provide to the customers. They would further require to assess these limitations and should be aware of the standard tangible and intangible factors that make a boutique hotel highly successful. This process can help them to assess the requirements in a better way and thus, the expectations and the level of satisfaction of the customers can be achieved in a successful way. The overall process can be challenging and difficult to assess. However; if the planning and assessment are done properly, then the challenges can be overcome in a successful and efficient way. The success of the hotel is highly dependent on the way the staffs and the managers would handle the customers and would meet with the needs and expectations of these customers. The standards of a boutique hotel need to be maintained efficiently and with proper planning and analysis.

It will be also important for the managers to assess the risks in the aspect of the customer service and proper planning is also required to be made in terms of overcoming those risks with success. However; the hotel needs to follow and manage its policies and the staffs and the managers should maintain the services in accordance with the policies. It will be also important to implement the reward system in the process of employee management. Reward system can help in proper monitoring of the performances of the staffs along with motivating them to perform better in the aspect of customer services. Most important of all, despite improving and advancing the services, the tradition of the hotel should not be changed and it should be maintained throughout. This is because; tradition is an important factor which has helped this boutique hotel to achieve and maintain the success throughout. Thus, this should be maintained throughout in the future as well.

Overall, the issues in the current business and the gaps need to be identified by the management of the boutique hotel. This will help the managers to assess the necessary changes and further, strategies can be implemented to improve the services with success. Staffs should be also engaged to gain their feedback and for helping them to improve their performances with success. The success of the hotel is highly dependent on the performances of the staffs in terms of providing high-quality services to the customers.

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