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BS4D03 Management Project Assignment, University of South Wales, UK

Topic - Digital Communities Wales

Conduct an evaluation will be to draw conclusions on the emerging effects of the programme, both for operational practice and for recipients, by investigating the programme's

(i) Structural form and operational practice and

(ii) Its effectiveness and operational efficiency.

Provide a report bid critically discussing how they would produce a study that achieves the following: An evaluation study providing a clear analysis of the Digital Communities Wales initiative meeting the aims and objectives identified.


Answer -


Chapter 1: Introduction - Background and Objectives

The aim of the detailed report is to evaluate and understand the issue of digital exclusion that has been a cause of great problem for the residents in the city of Wales in England, United Kingdom. The report speaks about an exclusive initiative by the Welsh Government named Digital Communities Wales, which seeks to remove the digital illiteracy and enable most residents to adapt to digital skills, thereby making them digitally inclusive and digitally literate. The digital programme covered public, private as well as hybrid sectors to reduce instances of digital exclusion and to meet the goals outlined in the government's digital inclusion framework. The Welsh Government has signed up initial two-year contracts with organizations from both public and private sectors to set up a plan that focuses on identifying areas, which are deprived from digital benefits, and to train people in those areas thereby making them more digitally sound. The main areas of digital inclusion were covered in the programme, which included training of front line staff and adding digitalization in the funding contract. The programme of digital inclusion is a part of the Welsh Government's public welfare initiative where Welsh Co-operative Centre has been assigned to set up the task initially from 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2017. In a recent development, the programme is being planned to extend to two years to extensively cover not only Wales but other areas all over UK which are digitally deprived. The focus of the programme is to encourage people to use digital technologies for their own good. Mostly old, physically challenged, young yet unemployed persons are to be covered under the programme.

The objectives of the Digital Communities Wales programme are as follows:

  • Reducing digital exclusion and achieving the goals set out in the digital inclusion framework and delivery plan.
  • Coordination of the digital inclusion activities and maximizing the effect of the programme by encouraging people towards digital awareness.
  • The focus of the programme is to support every organization and community who are working with persons who are digitally deprived and to help them in every manner possible.
  • According to the a recent report of 2018, fifteen percent of the adult population in Wales is still not online, which is the reason they are missing out on opportunities and services in healthcare, employment, learning skills and other significant social and public services. The programme seeks to identify potential areas in the digital inclusion activity and also minimizing costs and improving the value of the related service providers.
  • Undertake examples from other areas or regions in any other country where such initiatives have been in action and take inspiration from them.
  • Engaging with other digitally social activities prevalent in UK like basic digital skills charity and Go On UK, and BBC, post office, telecom companies, and other related associations and campaigns. From these activities, the successful practices need to be picked up and used for the betterment of the programme.
  • The Welsh Cooperative centre shall also identify areas, which need to be added under the purview of the Digital Communities Wales initiative in future and what efforts are to be given for the same.
  • The programme aims to support about fifteen thousand people each year by engaging about five hundred volunteers each year and assist five hundred people each year by helping them understand the basics of internet and use it in job related prospects.
  • Priority areas like old persons above the age of fifty, economically inactive persons, tenants of social housing complexes, mental health, education, taxation and primary healthcare which are digitally deprived and have negligible knowledge about the use of information and communication technology. These areas are to be focused as far as possible.
  • Spreading the growth of digital economy and ensure the economy is affordable and provides low energy consumption.
  • Developing the role of public as well as local libraries in promotion of digital inclusion so that they can be made the provider of digital access, training and support for the local communities. National partners such as Good Things Foundation would be helping with the digital inclusion initiative that has supported about two million learners to understand internet basics.

Chapter 2: Supportive Evidence

Digital change is a revolution in technological as well as cultural arena. In is modern method of using the data in solving various problems. The focus of this approach is to design the services so it can satisfy the requirements of the users. There are numerous reports that show the pictures of the consistent effort of the Welsh government to establish the digital approaches in the public service sectors. The aim of this digitalization in several sectors is to get the better result as well as to provide better and cost saving service to the fellow citizens. There are many examples of digital services all over the Wales, which are discussed below.


Digitalization in the Taxation system

The Revenue Authority of Welsh has set up an ideal model in the field of taxation system of the country. The Authority has introduced a cloud based taxation procedure that can be operated through the internet. All the legal professional or lawyers are allowed to file as well as to submit the income tax return via online in this system (Dornberger et al., 2018).The lawyers of these days do not required to keep on the HMRC's 'legacy' process which was tedious along with time consuming. This earlier method used to take a long time to acquire data as well as to identify the requirements of the users. The digitization in the taxation system is a bold approach of the Welsh revenue body in promoting a latest system in this field (Chadha and Harlow, 2018). Undoubtedly, this move of the state's revenue body has saved enough time of the users. It also has rescued the users from devoting the extra and unrequited endeavour attempt of filing the income tax (Shin, 2016). The authority also interacts with the users based on their feedback. They admit their mistakes and learn from their failure (McElroy, Papagiannouli and Wiliam, 2017). This is the reason why this approach is so much significant. The revenue body of the country Welsh has welcomed the digitalization as a culture rather than only a scientific or technological progress. Therefore, it is obvious that this attempt of the state revenue authority has succeeded to satisfy the legal professionals of Welsh and make happy.

Another example can be shared in this context. The Pembrokeshire Council has promoted a SMS or text messaging system in order to give a reminder to the people of the country at the time of their income tax submission. The stapes has been adopted to collect the revenue on time. It also helps the fellow citizen of Welsh from giving penalty for the unwilling late submission of their tax. The council is about to start a reverse SMS or text messaging system in order to allow the citizens to ask relevant questions regarding the refused collection before the vacation of Christmas.

Digitalization in the Educational Field

The other of digitalization of the Welsh government can be noticed in the area of educational sector. The government of the country has provided HWB Platform in order to spread the access of the teaching resources to all the students along with the teachers inside the geographical area of the country. These days it has become a full-fledged in-house service. It has let the students as well as the teachers to utilize the online digital resources as well as the applications or tools such as, Google or MS office 365 for the educational purpose (Avis and Reynolds, 2018). This approach of the Welsh government has opened the door of a new era of enlightenment or pedagogy. In recent time, the student can acquire all their professor's note and project at their own convenient time by sitting far away from the actual classroom. Even the students can get the syllabus as well as the timetable of their project and the other related information through the internet. In addition, they can get the opportunity to clear their doubts with the help the online chatting with their professors. Undoubtedly, the digitalization in the educational field has added an extra hike in the literacy rate of the country (Curtis, A. and Kelly, 2018).

Since the year 1960, the schools as well as the colleges of the country Welsh have taking initiatives to improve the infrastructure of the educational institutions. The schools and the colleges of the twenty first century in Welsh are giving strong emphasis on promoting the broadband or Wi-Fi system. The aim behind this approach is to make the assets as well as all the resources available for the use of the community. It will minimize the hassles that a student had to face in earlier days. It is timing saving too as the student need not to visit the institute to acquire the assets or the resources. In addition, they are not required to wait in a long queue to collect those assets. Since the month of September 2016, a latest digitally competence structure has been made available to the schools of the country.

Digitalization in the Medical field

Another example has been set up by the South West Wales Renal Service. They have created a latest online transformation service to attend the patients who are suffering from the nephrological problems. It includes all the latest approach like text reminder to the patients about the health check up, online prescription of the remedy of a disease the authority of the patients' access to the reports of the health check up as well as the other treatment plans. It does not need to mention that this approach of the South West Renal Service has save the hard-earned money as well as the precious time of the patient. At the same time it has help the patients and their family members from being harassed unnecessarily. In addition, it has reduces the hassles of the achieving the medical service (Dornberger et al., 2018). Specially, it is has been proved quite fruitful for those old patients who are staying far away from their adult children. It is also beneficiary for the patients who are physically disabled.

This latest move of the Wales Renal Service team has transformed a system that was entirely dependable on the paper notes, into an electronic based record that is not only comprehensive but also easy to manage for the new generation. It helps the patients to get the electronic prescription as well as the reports of their health check up without doing it manually. There is no need to mention that because of this revolutionary approach of the team not only the kidney patients have felt relief but also the members of their families are able to utilize the time to their work. Therefore, obviously the step has saved a huge potential working hour that could have been wasted by the earlier process. Undoubtedly, it has been proved beneficial for the country's progress (Adams, 2019).

Another move in the medical field that deserves to be mention is the approached that has been taken by the Health Board of Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University. The board was the pioneer organization that started a recorded that can be controlled by the patients. It integrates all the data, which is related to the patients of the country. Their scheme is famous as the 'Patients Know Best'. The scheme lets the patients to get the messages as well as the feedback from their medical team. At the same time, the patients are able to get the advice from their doctors.

The scheme also allows the patients to access all the data as well as the information, which are related to the secondary care treatment. The records can be controlled and managed by the patients that let the NHS to hold information such as blood test report, letters as well as the documents that is written to the GPs from their hospitals. There is an additional advantage for the patients as they can share these health reports, documents as well as the other important and relevant information with the other hospital or clinical team in order to cross check the treatment procedure and thus the patients are able to remove their doubts along with the anxiety.


It helps the patients to get the mental satisfaction, which also initiate the health development. Even the patients can share all these information with the members of their family in a hassle free manner.

The introduction of NHS has brought revolution in the field of the health as well as the social care. Since last seventy year, the organization has been providing the transformative opportunities to the patients. The rapid advancement in the technological field has made the citizens of the Welsh more active in caring themselves. It has bestowed a convenient way to get the medical treatment for the fellow citizens of Welsh. According to the recent review of the parliament, the digitization in the medical field has delivered more effective as well as more efficient care to most of the patient. The Welsh government aspired to create a platform that is based on the internet to the fellow citizens in order to provide them a greater control in their treatment.

The government also wants to make the citizens more enthusiastic in the taking part in the health as well as well-being. The Welsh government thinks that the approach will assist the patient to have more choices about their treatments, figuring out the most appropriate health service according to their requirements, fixing the appointment with their doctors, sharing the details of their treatment with other specialists and getting the specialist's opinion or advice.

However there is hidden a serious risk in the above procedure. Digitization in the medical field can serve those patients who are internet literate. There is a huge population who are hardly used to with this technology, in Welsh. Hence, there is chance that the patients, who are not tech savvy, can remain excluded from getting the benefit of this scheme. A study shows that the around 85% of people in Welsh use the internet in recent time, whereas 15 % citizens still feel reluctant to get used to this technology. They have still not embraced the online service and therefore prefer the earlier procedure. This situation can create barriers in the digital inclusion in the health and care field in the country.

Digital inclusion for tackling poverty

The internet and communication technology has advanced, and people now virtually reside in a digital society, Internet is considered as a significant area, which needs no introduction. With the improvement in internet communication and technology, there are several areas, which needs to be addressed that have been digitally deprived. In this context, the initiative of the Welsh Government in UK needs special mention. The initiative started with Communities@One and Communities 2.0, and extended to the Digital Communities Wales programme all of which are under the Digital Delivery Plan and Strategic Framework. It has often been seen that digital inclusion has removed much of the digital divide that is prevalent in societies (Robert et al., 2017).

The digital divide can be of both economic and social and the Welsh Government seeks to tackle poverty of both these kinds by this unique initiative. The poverty alleviation approach of the digital initiative focuses on the present effects of poverty and and prevention of future poverty. The three focal points of the digital action plan to tackle poverty deals with preventing poverty, aiding people to get jobs, and improving the livelihood of poverty-stricken people. It is also worth mentioning that as digital advancements are progressing, there are instances where people have been victims of in-work poverty. Poverty not always means from a monetary point of view, it can also mean lack of certain abilities or services. Improving the overall outcomes of households by letting them become digitally educated irrespective of their income levels is the focus of the Digital Communities Wales programme (Philip et al., 2017).

The tackling poverty programme deals with Welsh Government's revised Child Poverty strategy. The strategy deals with objectives, which involves creating an economy, which is strong supported by an equally strong labour market. Such objectives can be fulfilled by focusing on reducing the poverty, which has been observed with respect to digital service use, and removing disparities in household and overall income standards. All of these issues can be tackled by the framework and strategy devised under the digital inclusion plan of the Digital Communities Wales programme. The Welsh Co-operative Centre seeks to identify areas of both economic and digital poverty and aims to extend the benefits of digital services in these areas, thereby reducing the digital and communication divide (, 2016).

There are always doubts in the minds of those affected by poverty regarding the utilization of digital services, and therefore it is needed that skill development using digital technology and employment opportunities using digital services are provided to underprivileged people. Such an initiative has been further recognized by tackling poverty through digital inclusion through the Rural Communities Development Fund. The fund gained its stature through the Welsh Government's Rural Development programme for the years 2014-2020. The focus of the fund is offering grants for a wide range of areas where poverty could be mitigated and prevented from spreading to rural communities (, 2016).

The grants are offered to organizations or groups, which can design poverty mitigation and prevention techniques in the most effective manner. The focus of the fund is to promote social inclusion, reduction in poverty and enhance economic development in rural areas of Wales, which are deprived. The rural development programme also aims to improve resilience and adaptation capabilities of rural communities and their people so that they can easily accept and adjust to changes in their surroundings. For achieving the same, digital services are to be extensively improved and reach areas in Wales and other parts of the UK who have still not able to reap the benefits of digital inclusion (Philip et al., 2017).

The focus of the rural digital inclusion programme is not only removing embedded poverty in the rural society of Wales and its surroundings, but also to eradicate child poverty, which has been an increasing, cause of concern for the Welsh Government. The concept of child poverty is mostly because children are left out from the advantages of education and other social benefits due to the absence of a steady income from their parents. Lower income households cannot afford to give their child a basic computer education because of poverty. The aim of the Digital Communities Wales initiative is to reduce poverty by providing employment and also helping children receive a basic digital knowledge, they deserve and aspire.


Digital inclusion for mental health

The issue of mental health is a serious problem that is rooted in the complexities of the human society as well as the human mind for long. The Welsh Government has worked with several organizations to eradicate the effects of loneliness and social isolation. It has often been observed that the inability of individuals to be acquainted with other people either face-to-face or virtually are some of the major causes of anxiety and the feeling of loneliness. It is universally known that human beings cannot stay alone for long. Each person needs someone to share their thoughts and have conversation with so that they do not feel socially left out (Gupta et al., 2018).

The Welsh Government's Well-being of future generations, Act 2015 aims to work for the well-being of future generations. It has been observed that the future generations especially the millenials are more or less prone to instances of depression, anxiety, loneliness and the feeling of social isolation. Depression and anxiety can stem from several reasons being family pressure, academic pursuits and personal relationships with friends and peers. Loneliness and social isolation might stem from the fact that one is not able to cope up with the stress that life nowadays gives. Isolation might be caused due to comparing one's life with others (Weich et al., 2018).

The Welsh Government through the mental health care network seeks to improve mental health care services by the NHS mental health confederation, which speaks about mental health access through digital innovation. Under the 'Using digital technology to design and deliver better mental health services' programme introduced by the director of policy at mental health network in UK, Wales and other areas in the United Kingdom are to be covered where patients would be provided access to mental health care and counselling after a referral from a certified general practitioner. Digitally including persons who are patients of mental health issues like dementia, anxiety, depression and having suicidal tendencies can go a long way in reducing deaths that happen due to any kind of mental trauma (Trevithick et al., 2018).

In mental health, the problem often arises when there is no helping hand near the person who needs much attention and care and seeks support to lead them from the dark dungeon they have put themselves. With this thought, the Wales Government with the mental health network and the NHS seeks to identify innovations in digital technology, which can solve mental health issues, which mostly plagues the youth and the young adults. Digital technologies have the ability to transcend physical as well as political boundaries, and therefore people need to be motivated and encouraged to use digital services for their own benefit so that they do not feel left out in the digital boom that is presently happening (Hancock, 2018).

For articulating mental health, the need of the hour is to undertake a national vision for the mental health service, which is getting constrained due to lack of innovation and the prediction of higher costs in adopting digitalization in mental health. Through the use of apps, and virtual reality, the patients of mental health can access care and medical serviced anytime anywhere. To achieve this much needs to be done, and before those online communities, websites for podcasts, online therapies and even the Smartphone can be of a great help to mental health patients who need constant support and guide (Hancock, 2018).

To guide people towards using these services, Digital Communities Wales is helping people access internet and technology through public, private and third sector organizations and deal with mental health in a positive manner. Campaigns like 'Time to Change Wales' have been introduced to encourage people start conversing about their mental health issues and sharing their problems with one another. Thus, mental health is a significant part of the Digital Communities Wales digital inclusion programs (Weich et al., 2018).

Chapter 3: Study of Gantt chart

When a project is being initiated, it is very important for the people managing the project to keep track of the time and the operations of the specific project. The organization or group of people involved with a project has to consider the total time frame required for completing the whole project and the time required to complete each task (Van et al., 205). The step by step completion of the individual tasks or operations takes us to the successful completion of the project and that brings profit for the company. This tracking of the time and the tasks has to be recoded as well for future references for both academic and practical purposes. In the year 1971, social scientist and an engineer from America, Henry L. Gantt developed a chart that was in form of a horizontal bar and was used as a tool to control the production units and the systems. The chart that came to be known as the Gantt chart became an important component for the project management departments as it provides the management team the graphical illustration or representation of the schedule on which they are working (Van et al., 205). The illustration involves the plans of the projects, the coordinates as well as keeps track of all the specific and individual tasks of the project. It can state whether the project is running on time or if it is late. The chart not only helps the management team to assess the time required but can be used for scheduling and planning as well. It evaluates the resources that the team needs to complete the tasks and then plan them in an efficient order.

The Gantt chart that is provided for the determination of the time frame for this project has been developed within a time limit of 6 months. The techniques have been connected by the singular steps of implementation and represent the duration of the processes. It gives an overview of the project consulting process to the client as well as to the stakeholders (Van et al., 205). It is a significant tool to give the durations of the processes and their dependencies too. The dependency that this project chart follows is a "finish-to-start" dependency, which defines that until and unless a specific task is completed, the next one cannot be started. The steps have to complete in order to complete the critical path of the project. However, there are certain steps that can start before the dependent one is done because it does not require the results or the outcomes of the previous task. The project that will be continued for 6 months straight starts with a meeting that has been arranged to initiate the whole process. There has to be continued form of communication between the client, the consultant, and the shareholders (Lambert, 2017). The meeting for the initiation of the project will identify all the people who will be involved with the various tasks and will also present the relevant materials of the project. Towards the end of the last month the client will be presented with the final report along with the recommendations for the tasks yet to be done. At the end there will be an evaluation meeting, which can provide effective feedback for the future projects. The chart represents the complete project, which was more or less on time.


Gantt chart

Management Project Assignment.png

Chapter 4: Contribution

The study of all the aspects of the Digital Communities Wales through proper techniques and processes have lead the paper towards the formulation of study that will detail the individual features, which contributes in the identification of the objectives and the aim for the requirement of digital inclusion in Wales (Voss, 2016). The questions that the system faces will be provided with suitable answers with proper investigation on the various individual personnel or organizations that are connected to the project. With the help of a scientific and holistic approach the insights of the details of all the possibilities and the potential of the project have been provided.

4.1 Stakeholder Analysis

This imitative taken by Welsh government named Digital communities Wales to remove digital illiteracy and to make and understand the residents about digital skills, hence making them digitally educated and digital inclusive (Grünig and Kühn, 2018). This program has reached out to public, private, and even hybrid sectors to decrease the chances of digital exclusion and achieving the goals assigned in the government's digital inclusion framework. The collaborating with different organizations and sectors needs to focus on important shareholders. A shareholder can be any person, institution or any company that has a least few percent of share of an organization's stock as shareholders are stated as company's owners; they collect advantages of company's success in the form of stock valuation that is increased. In case, the organization performs weak and prices of its stock reduced, then they will eventually lose money (Grünig and Kühn, 2018).

Stakeholder analysis is a part of project management tool and very much approved by management researchers and practitioners. This analysis provides a broad range of information. In software organization, the software persons act as stakeholders who are involved in the software. This management technique handles questions of who are the important project stakeholders will be or are, how their needs and what they want are and even how they are compared to other stakeholders (Grünig and Kühn, 2018). In this case, of digital communities Wales it is important to consider who the important stakeholders are.

The stakeholders have their views and expectations for intended program, with particular wants and needs that might conflict with each other. First, a brainstorming meeting held for identification of stakeholders, and the client involves based on the knowledge of the affected group and internal proceedings. Identification depends on users, developers, decision makers, and legislators according to objectives of program (Becker et al., 2017). After that, direct stakeholder communication takes place to determine the requirements and their needs. Communication can happen through personal conversations or structured meetings. This step is necessary as it ensures the involvement of stakeholders from starting of the program. Stakeholder's prioritization is been considered for strategic adjustment of the public and private organization. After all this, the results include a final stakeholder matrix with priorities, objectives, and contributions created. Problems during stakeholder analysis may seem to appear in case of hard convenience of stakeholders as well as in case there is a single stakeholder trying to differ in the objectives (Becker et al., 2017).

4.2 Shareholder Analysis

The program that was started by the Government of Wales focuses on the expansion of the project by involving various organizations for the development for the community (Dirks et al., 2018). The need for the expansion is because of the vast areas that the project has to cover in order to mitigate the issues of digital exclusion. The Digital Inclusion Framework can only be effectively implemented if the local and the national communities are involved with the project. It has certain economic aspect to it that attracts the private organizations as well as the institutions of the public sectors to collaborate with the government on this front (Voss, 2016). Mobile companies, internet service providers, educational institutions and health firms have all an interest with the success of this project that is not only social but financial too. The involvement of the different organizations with the government gave the project a better platform to reach out to more and more people but there are still areas that have to be covered within the community of Wales so that more people can get involved in the project to make Wales a technologically developed land (Dirks et al., 2018).

4.3 Software Analysis and Benchmarking

Based on stakeholder analysis, following software benchmarking is performed to check whether there are best practices examples that exist in the market that may overlap with the outcomes of stakeholder analysis objectives (Bialek et al., 2016). The analysis aims to understands those functional requirements, that are been identified by the stakeholders having most high prioritization. Benchmarking is a practice of measuring and comparing the organizational functions with other comparable processes of industries. Performing benchmarking will help to gather information and accomplish an improvement of the own organization operations by using this important information. Software benchmarking is type of competitive analysis that includes software companies or organizations and existing best practices models of comparable markets. This benchmarking analysis is held externally and is possible to put the operational needs of the clients on a state that lets them to race with other potential competitors on a technological and qualitative high level (Bialek et al., 2016).


The first in the process of software benchmarking is the gathering of information. Collection of data is qualitative one in software benchmarking. Collecting of data based on digital inclusion and exclusion in Wales. This information is mostly collected from general reports of market from various databases like Mintel, Key Note and Marketline as also the providers of special reports of benchmarking like LLC, Best practices and many more. Besides, online visibilities of software manufacturers such as Microsoft, Oracle and SAP provide more information related to mobile solutions for many highly developed organizations even the food industry. Based on data that is gathered earlier, an analysis and evaluation of benchmarks is carried out subsequently (Li et al., 2019). The analysis will compare objectives of identifies stakeholders involved in this initiated program from Wales government with the discussed benchmarks to set the final operational needs which the mobile B2B software has to fulfill to gain a recognizable competitive benefits within the industry. However, there is point to consider that benchmarking has its restricted access. With the increase of globalization and fast changing technology, the current software benchmarks cannot be taken for granted and remains the exact same benchmarks in coming future. Therefore, long-term developments have to be taken into consideration for the success of the program (Li et al., 2019).

4.4 Risk Identification and Evaluation

The identification of the risks that the project faces is significant in order to help the community of Wales and for the success of the project. The identification of the risks is important for the improvement of the process and to make the consumers habituated with it (Bonacchi and Moshenska, 2017). There are significant issues with the project that possess as a risk for the successful implementation of the system in the community. The training programs that the project includes are available to the volunteers and the frontline staff alone. The government has also to build strong impersonal relations with the organizations and the stakeholders that are directly connected to the project to build common trust. However, the minority communities of the land are not homogeneous in nature and that is a barrier to the achievement of digital inclusion (Lambert, 2017). These communities might diverge in the future and the experiences of the internet utilization or of ICT will be lost upon them. The policy-makers often fail to provide enough support to the minority groups so that they can avail internet. The infrastructure of the internet is inadequate in most of the places in Wales. The use of digital skills in order to access technology is still not sufficient enough in the usage of the health tools. The awareness of the digital health services that are public facing is not very high in Wales. The topography of the country affects the commercial coverage of the project as does the population density. Improving the mobile coverage aspects through the exploration of the public subsidy remains unavailable commercially (Lambert, 2017). The quality of the service along with the coverage is not essential yet to the policy-makers, which is a negative aspect of the project and hinders the success rate too.

The people who are still digitally excluded can face the following issues:

  • They can face economic or social deprivation to a certain level.
  • If exclusion is the way of life in an area or has become a norm then it will become more and more serious with time.
  • The excluded people have the disadvantage of not getting the proper opportunity to apply or search for the job of their choice online (Dirks et al., 2018).
  • These people miss out on the advanced and improved educational systems and prospects that can be provided with the access to internet.

4.5 Life-Cycle Budget and Cost Analysis

In resource requirements, the second part tells about the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis (Clowney et al., 2016). This tool handles the questions of how much is the increasing expenditure or costs for the client would be. The program of digital inclusion that is part of Welsh Government's public welfare approach where welsh co-operative centre has been given the task from 1st April 2015 to 31st march 2017. In recent times of development, the program got planned to be extended about two years that not only cover Wales extensively and even other places all across the UK, to those who are digitally not accessed. This program that aims to give empowerment and encourages people to be able to use digital technologies for their own benefits is working (Clowney et al., 2016).

It is important to consider the costs involved in the whole procedure and how to use it accordingly that would benefit the people. To figure the financial requirements of Digital Communities Wales, life cycle cost analysis seems to be a good approach for the respective client or stakeholders since it not only have selective programming and implementation costs. However, also looks for the costs like for the important maintenance, operating, support and disposal costs, from starting to the end of products involved in program (Clowney et al., 2016). Cost savings technique is important in the development and testing phase that could lead to increase of maintenance costs in phase of operating.

LCC is been described in the pre project-planning phase of Digital Community Wales; it will provide the summary of long time scope. The LCC analysis has five different types of costs that are contingent, direct, indirect, intangible and even external costs involved in the program. For example, we can take labor, material and overhead costs. The collection of information process for the LCC analysis occurs with support of a bottom-up approach, using activity based costing that are later accumulated (Clowney et al., 2016). The LCC analysis process gets support from open source estimation software and all the calculations are related on market prices for wages per hour ad necessary software tools. At the end of the analysis, individual cost is calculated, hence provided with a statement about the whole product lifecycle. Cost may differ with time; so many times the analysis is unable to give possible changes.


4.6 Evaluation of Environment

The analysis of the environment is significant in order to understand the effectiveness of the project when it will be implemented in Wales (Muller et al., 2015). The level of appreciation from the community of Wales for the project after initiation has to be calculated in order to develop positive schemes and investing millions. The government has to justify the need of the project in the land and then implement it accordingly. An analysis of the structure of the system and the people or organizations involved has to be done as well to know what the project aims at (Muller et al., 2015). The people of Wales who have a lower socio-economic status have a tendency to be digitally disengaged as do the people who have disabilities that are limiting them in one way or the other. For some people in the communities of Wales it is also a matter of personal choice to be digitally excluded. There are numerous houses that do not have access to the internet and therefore, lack the ability to understand or use it when the system is offered to them. Proper training has to be provided from the project itself in order to familiarize them with the digital world with the help of the training programs of the project (Slotta et al., 2018).

4.7 Project Time Planning

It is like the other projects, where the client's internet connectivity and digital inclusion project contains the necessary individual steps that need to be undertaken. To get synopsis of the time the organization or the company involved in this Wales program has to spend for the project, time planning of the project that is an essential step to bring out temporal requirements (Pellerin and Perrier, 2018). Especially for software engineering projects, time is considered as exceptional challenge or obstacle because of the high dependency and complexity on vague proceedings. The two main points that are taken in project time planning are the drawing of a Gantt chart and formation of an activity based network. The initial step towards the network is to divide the project into different activities in order to give basis for scheduling and estimation of activities. This step involves a more researched and deep knowledge in software programming and testing procedures and hence experiences gathered from managers who took participation in software engineering projects also software engineering case studies to maintain this crucial step. Together these sources with published data estimated, will eventually contribute in the identification of approximate required time (Pellerin and Perrier, 2018).

Later the activities that were revealing have to be set into logical order. An individual task durations and dependencies will allow for making a diagram of network, end times, considering start times and milestones. Later the activities that were revealing have to be set into logical order. An individual task durations and dependencies will allow for making a diagram of network, end times, considering start times and milestones (Pellerin and Perrier, 2018). Planning approaches with more details will help to consider resource constraints and costs for the individual steps, for the reach of the study however it seems to not relevant. There will be a detailed Gantt chart in the end of the network diagram. The application of project management software like MS Project is basic important for a project of such difficulty and by helping in avoiding mistakes, and secures consistency for the planning approach. Further, with multiple options it provides to client about reports of time planning and layout. The Digital communities Wales will face success to remove digital illiteracy and help the residents to gain knowledge about digital skills only when the organization actively take approach and to make project time planning to ensure the processing and order of the work (Vaagen et al., 2017).

4.8 Suitability of the System

The general people of Wales are still to find the usage of internet and of the technologies important in Wales (Williams et al, 2016). There are over 85% people in Wales that use internet on a regular basis but there still are some who do not feel the need of it for their regular chores. Although the percentage have moved from 77% in the year 2012 to 85% in the year 2018 of the people using the internet, the government of the country have still a long way to go before the country is as efficient in using internet as the rest of the United Kingdom. The barriers that pose as issues for the completion of digital inclusion are the deficiency of access and the lack of proper digital skills in people. The issues lie with the affordability of the system and the connectivity of broadband as well. The lack of access and skills results in the lack of significant interest or motivation (Slotta et al., 2018). There also is the problem that the government faces with the implementation of the process, which are the digital services often fails to provide sufficient services to compel the people of Wales to find it meaning enough that it will give them security and privacy as well.

The Digital Communities Wales have still been able to tackle the issues in practical actions and in policies too. The Digital Competence Framework that has been placed in various schools has successfully equipped the students with skills that will turn them into digital citizens of the country. Superfast Cymru has helped to bring access of broadband in the rural areas (Williams et al, 2016). Policy areas such as the Well-being of Future Generation (Wales) Act, the Strategy for Older People, etc., have been improved too. The Workstream One helps the national public facing services by including My Health text for appointment reminding, My Health Online for the requests of prescriptions and the appointments of the general physician, Patient Records Experience Measures of PREMS, Patient Record Outcome Measures or PROMS, etc. (Radanliev et al., 2019).

Furthermore, the system has made broadband accessible, which is helping the economy of the community and infrastructure of the society is improving. The society includes 99% households that have access to broadband and there are 60% more that are taking it up as well. Although, the take up rate have been different for the last few years, it still has seen a steady growth. It has been challenging for the people involved with the system to convince the general public of Wales that the project is definitely delivering. There are other challenges that the topography of the land possess and it hinders the government to provide the best and up-to-date service of the mobile to the people (Bonacchi and Moshenska, 2017). The need for more number of mobile transmitters is important to get parity with the other European nations. The use of the ICTs however, has been great at promoting a level of connectivity in the community and the mitigation of digital exclusion that still affects the minorities can be done with the higher level of involvement of the stakeholders. The general statement was still positive that stated that the importance of internet in the everyday lives of the people of Wales is high as it can help them participate in the politics of the land. It enhances the community life along with the improvement in communication. The connectivity of the individual people as well as the whole community has improved (Radanliev et al., 2019).

Chapter 5: Concluding Remarks

From the above research it has been proved that the introduction of digital communities has started a new era in Welsh. It has given a facile as well as time saving procedure of interaction in the revenue, education, health care and many more sectors in the country. However this approach is not flawless still now. As an example the following loopholes can be mentions. In case of medical system it is crucial to mention that the old and physically disabled patients in Welsh, who need the health care service the most are often reluctant to be online. According to a recent research a three quarter of the citizens in the country are suffering a long standing illness or disabilities. Among the country's total population almost 70 % women and 75% men are aged within 65 to 75. This population hardly use internet due lack of affordability of internet or broadband connectivity or lack digital knowledge. It makes them left behind in getting the technically advanced medical treatment.

In the same way technically unskilled citizens are unable to enjoy the smoothness of digital life. The students who are unable to afford the broadband connectivity cannot get the freedom to achieve their study related resources as well as the assets and therefore lack behind the other students who are well of. Obviously, it creates a barrier in spreading the fragrances of enlightenment among the students belong from a poor class. The in-depth study of the digital communities and the digital systems in Wales has given a proper image of the digital and technological involvement standard in Wales. The digital connectivity platform is a very crucial aspect of the day-to-day lives of the people living in the contemporary world. However, the study shows how Wales faces the issues of digital exclusion on a daily basis. There are many communities in wales who have not internet access that makes Wales the place in the United Kingdom that have the highest non-internet utilization or usage rate. Research and proper studies have been able to identify how the provision of the simple feature of Broadband in the rural areas of Wales affects the various business opportunities of the country and the business organizations are unable to meet the demands and the requirements that the customers make. The educational aspects of the country is getting affected as well because in the modern work that works on advanced technological and scientific systems, online education is a significant system of academic learning.

The Welsh Government has been aware of the issue for a considerable amount of time and has involved the communities of the country with the initiatives such as the Communities@One and the Communities 2.0. The research further provides the fact that almost 15% of the adult people living in Wales are not online. This makes them miss out on rather significant aspects of life such as the opportunity to find a job, ideas to save money, access to significant services like care homes and hospitals, and finally, to learn new abilities. The Digital Communities Wales helps the organizations in Wales that works with this digitally excluded group of people. The Welsh Government has invested millions to improve the conditions and make the community of Wales digitally inclusive. Involving proper frameworks to bring success and engaging the whole community in the system has helped the community and that is what the paper proves. In spite of all such drawbacks the Welsh government is still optimistic for the future of the digital community in the country. It deserved to be mention that with the help of this advance technology the government has able to fight a lot of issues in the state such as providing a online jobs to the jobless citizens.




Modern era is the epoch of the advancement in Technology. Specially, Internet is working as miracles these days. Digital Community is one of such miracles that have become quite frequent recently in almost every sector of Today's life. The word 'Digital Community' refers to an online community where a number of people interact through internet in order to solve a common purpose. Recently the Welsh government has taken a policy to promote digital community inside the country. From the previous study in Part A the individual has shown that how the government of Welsh has been encouraging the introduction of the digital inclusion in different sectors such as taxation department, health care, educational as well as many other sectors. The aim of the government of promoting such digitalization is to enhance convenience as well as smoothness of the work. In this section the individual will discussed about the assumptions, Ethics and Values , Time Management of the project along with the Experience and significant of this latent technology. The individual also has illustrated the scope and the future of the digital communities in Welsh.


The broadband access has changed the economy of Welsh. The digital life has bestowed comfort as well as convenience to the citizens of the country. However, there are some drawbacks where the government has to focus.

  • Firstly, as per a recent research a huge number of fellow citizens still show reluctance in using internet and thus become left behind in the race with technically advanced people in the country. They miss the opportunity that the digital communities can facilitate to them. There could be many reasons of their unwillingness of being online. According to the thirty percent fellow citizens, internet is too much expensive. Few of them considered it really complicated as well as difficult to operate. There is no doubt that lack of proper awareness or technical skill is one of the reasons of not using the online service. Hence, the Welsh government needs to spread awareness of the comfort and convenience of utilizing the latest technology in several sector of life. The government needs to encourage the people in achieving various services through online. In fact, the Welsh government needs to undertake some digital training program in order to make the country tech savvy (Attridge and Welsh, 2018). Though the government has taken few approaches in this context, yet these are not sufficient in respect of the need. Only then the Welsh government will be able to fight back this issue (Terras et al.,2017)
  • Secondly, the state government needs to focus on the infrastructure of the various sectors like revenue, education, medical and many more fields in order to provide an inexpensive internet service to attract the citizen who are not that much wealthy to be online. Then only online services will be accessible to all the level of the society inside the country. At the same time, the government can provide the financial help to various organizations so that they can introduce the online facility in order to provide better service to the citizens. In this way the state government can take, a move to make the country digitally advanced (Stevenson, Ashworth and Evans, 2018).
  • Thirdly, the government can introduce the digital literacy in the school level. If the children learn, how to use the internet then, they will be able to handle all the online operations when they will grow up. There is no doubt that children can grasp the technical skill quietly easily rather than the old generation. Therefore if the government takes specially care to make the children technically advance then surely, there will come a day when the entire country will be able to enjoy the convenience of the internet as well as digital inclusion.
  • This point is related to the previous one. In order to promote the internet literacy in the educational institution the government needs to ensure that the teaching staffs who will educate the little ones do have adequate knowledge about the internet, digital community as well as the digital inclusion. Then only the teachers will be able to train the children in an easy and interesting way, or else, the entire effort will be a total waste and thus the dream of the government will never comes true(Wyburn, 2018).
  • In addition, the Welsh government can encourage the young generation of the country to come in front and join hand with the state government to spread the interest in participating in the digital community. The young generation is tech savvy and therefore shows interest in the internet operation. Hence, they can not only take the advantage of the online facilities in several sectors but also make their old parents on some other old people such as their neighbors or office colleagues teach how operate the online activity.

It is needed to keep in mind that the main concern of the digital inclusion in Welsh is the lack of physical access to the internet or the broadband. The government's investment in the telecom industry has increased the number of household as well as the private along with the government institutions, which are accessing broadband facility (Curtis and Kelly, 2018). In addition, the Welsh Assembly Government has taken many initiatives such as,

  • Public Sector Broadband Aggregation
  • Regional Innovative Broadband Support Scheme
  • Fiber Speed

Therefore, it can be accepted that with the help of those above-mentioned schemes as well was the assumed that the Welsh government can keep continuing the progress in making the country digitally advanced.

Ethics and Values

The project is manipulated based on the requirement of the peoples in Wales to be digitally active. The project highlights various aspects of digital media and digital technologies of today's world and how the people are debarred from availing the benefits. The modern world is majorly dependent on the Digital connections and communications. More technologies that are new are adopting day by day and we have to adapt accordingly to match the global competition and earn the opportunities. From my perceptions, Internet provides a better step forward towards the ultimate success if an individual. The project report in this section will elaborate the basic values of digital exclusion and what ethics is to be followed to get a better outcome (Risam, Snow and Edwards, 2017).


Digital communities in Wales, United Kingdom is one of the most effective step taken by the Welsh Government as to secure the opportunities for the people of Wales, UK to avail Digital benefits. The report clearly shows the effects of being debarred from these benefits in the modern world that is certainly affecting their physical and mental state. The excluded people are seriously suffering from being excluded with this modern technology. The report based on various statistics and other evaluations shows near about 15-20% of total population in Wales is excluded from this digital service. They are not having any means of availing digital benefits and they are lacking the opportunities that are related to this service. The value of Internet and Digitalization is not unknown to us. Even the trend is growing with the manipulation of internet and digital commodities to advance in all part of Technology. Digital exclusion affects the whole society as they falls backward from those who are sharing and acknowledging Digital facilities. As we know being online provides several benefits from being connected actively with the world to even participate with the available opportunities to grow (Lewis and Matthews, 2017). By participations, I actually mean to search and find employment, which is a major requirement for like every adult in Wales or in other places.

The most severe effect that Digital exclusion has on the people of Wales is the feeling of loneliness and being isolated from their relatives and friend circles. Sharing and caring of our emotions require proper communication and relations with our close ones, thus freeing our mind from being mentally sick (Risam, Snow and Edwards, 2017).

Digitalization is a global process and every individual should have the same opportunity to utilize it in his or her life to make it better and broader. While maximum public are aware and implementing Digital technologies and equipments in the market for better and cheap mode of operation, but I have found a significant ratio of public is divided and unknown from the benefits. This mainly encouraged the Welsh Government to evaluate and find out the way to share the benefits among all the people. They processed various relevant Frameworks to acknowledge the Digital inclusion in Wales, UK.

Every individual has the rights to avail the benefits of technology and the Governments should undertake effective strategies and rules to acknowledge this. Welsh government has implemented several volunteered projects and frameworks to provide digital benefits to their people (Simpson et al., 2018). Digital inclusion frameworks include Digital learning, being online with having proper connectivity with internet and various training modules in organizations. Internet is the reason of the change we are going through day to day. Through internet, individuals will have the access to stay connected with their closed persons, thus allowing having a better mental stability. On the mark of Ethical decisions, the Government planned to undertake the older citizens in Digital inclusion process to help them communicate with their relative that shows an effective change in their mental state. The Wales Government shows clear intent with several initiatives and provides proper strategic leadership to this project. The perspectives and decisions that are amended have a clear vision of the solutions that the Government is looking for a digitally active country (Simpson et al., 2018). Moreover, the effect of being online is highlighted as the major ethics of Digital exclusion in Wales, UK. The ethical planning and project includes the citizens of Wales to have proper mode and media facilities to access Internet in their home or workplaces.

Time Management

Time management in any project or work is very effective to achieve a better output through the process. The main objective of this process as the name suggests is to manage and maintain a proper time to finish the project (Kirillov et al., 2018). This will enable the management to ensure a better coordination and satisfaction to its desired outcomes. While carrying out this project we also have to go through a planned time management. The time strategic procedures that we follow in the overall

Digital Community management is as follows

  • The project was strategically planned and a timely based schedule was initiated so that a smooth operation involves in the whole system. Planning of a project is as essential as to finish the project. Improper strategies and irrelevant plans can significantly end the process before our expectations (Kirillov et al., 2018). The team was well organized, as they have to collect data and basic information that are important for the Digital Community we are looking for.
  • After scheduling the project arrangement, the next part need to be followed accordingly is to collect relevant information of how and where the peoples are prohibited from the opportunity. This includes a schematic arrangement of activities allocated to the team members by the Management and their ways of reaching out for the people to generate better information. This analysis is an evaluation cum arrangement method that rapidly progress the project based on the management schedule (Oettingen et al., 2015).
  • Sequencing the activities according to the plan is a definite way of getting an upper hand on the outcome of the project. The process work by accumulating all the tasks allocated and scheduled to be done in proper succession. The Digital inclusion strategy was based on the data collection process which is performed in succession of various others relevant tasks and objectives to it.
  • However, time management is a process wise application, but we need to follow some basic tools to perform the schedule management. The most effective tool is Critical Path analysis that eventually provides the knowledge of the path we are choosing for the project. The Wales Co-operative centre initiated the basic knowledge for the Welsh Government to accumulate the project (Oettingen et al., 2015).

A critical analysis provides the assumption of the time any part of the process will take to complete, and any interference that the late operation of the process will affect. The team involved in this process was noticed to have a what-if analysis based on various questions that can arise during the process layout and functioning. The Wales Government use this method for managing the risks associated with the digital inclusion of the public (Hornstein, 2015). They sort out various risks that could hamper the process outcome or even can stop the project before its completion.

The overall time management process needs to be effective and efficient. As both the term has different meaning in terms of the overall process that the Wales Government have taken, the major reflection will be on how much it is effective in the process of the project. Time management turns out to be effective when the goals are clearly discussed and well prioritized by the management. This helps the team members to collaborate well and avoid the distractions coming in path of the process. Wales's government clearly presented the importance of time and identified the digital companions in future times. The necessity of time management is cleared through the above discussion, which elaborates why, and how the process helps the Wales Government to continue it.


Learning from Experience and Moving Forward

The project above discuss about the importance of Digital participation and how the public can access the benefits of it in Wales, United Kingdom. The government in Wales has initiated the project Digital Community for the debarred people in the city. As from the discussion above, it is highly reflected that the Wales Government have taken the importance of Digital Exclusion seriously and are processing this situation so that every citizen in the nation share equal opportunity for the companion in future. Digitalization is effective in every part of the world and every nation is adopting their techniques and technologies according to the modern technologies (Karpf, 2019). The systems are upgrading, more connections and improvements are coming in to process, and better and advanced equipments are replacing the older models. This change is turning out to be productive in the field of global development and every organization and other utilizing places should acquire the advance process. United Kingdom is already a well-developed country and the technologies are well advanced in the global competition. Digitalization is all accompanied by the use of the internet throughout, and thus the role of internet is always a factor to be considered.

While majorities of people are taking the advantages of this service, few are remain excluded from the service. Internet actually helps us to gain more knowledge maybe it is in the field of education, business platforms and improvement or even communication with the world in a click (Karpf, 2019). Internet is required in every step to be digitally connected and like every people is now connected, the rights and the matter of equity is raising in Wales (Freidus, and Kruger, 2017). To solve this, the Welsh Government is cooperation with the Wales Co-operative centre initiated the Digital Community program where they clearly point outs their motive of bringing everyone under one umbrella of Digital companion. The program was organized with a team being introduced with their motive and goals they need to go for. Process wise communication and collaboration was observed and an analysis of the records is evaluated (Freidus, and Kruger, 2017). The study has presented a Gantt chart where the analysis clears the management to plan accordingly and schedule the program with the help of it. An analysis of the overall outcome of the initiatives is as important as gaining the knowledge and skills to adapt to the probable risks that can come in the way. The welsh government has also went through a Risk management analysis thus making them understand what can be the probable risks that could create an issue in future of the program.

The project shows how a planning can be effective in achieving the desired results and to perform smoothly for the whole team. Time management plays the most effective role as it helps to schedule the program and plans the program objectives with all the resources. Time management actually provides the schedule of starting to end of objectives. Wales Government has initiated several frameworks to modify the digital inclusion strategies where the broadband application scheme was one that can be highlighted. As the service was initiated in order to provide better internet quality to the public as well as ensuring that the service is available in every place in Wales (Taheri and Welsh, 2016). Thus, the study helps us learn about the proceedings of the program and the manipulation of the initiatives taken by the Wales government to create Digital inclusion in the nation. The future movement of the program should include experience implementation of the sources and better quality of resources to be hired for the objective. Internet service will be developed in future and more opportunities will be there. The Wales should look to incorporate the entire country to use the Internet service and avail all the opportunities so that everyone can have online educations, employment related details and communicate with their colleagues or relatives flawlessly. A technologically advanced country will always be better-developed country in future where Digital companion will play a major part in every aspects of globalization (Taheri and Welsh, 2016).


From the above study, it is quite expected that the future of the digital communication in Welsh is luminous. It has been noticed that because of the strong effort of the government, the tendency of using the internet among the citizens has increased in a rapid manner. At present, the most of the citizens of Welsh consider the broadband as a crucial part of the modern society. According to the Consumer Research in 2009, the individuals without the internet facility will be significantly at a disadvantageous stage. However, there are few barriers in achieving the desired result such as low income, uncertainty of job, lack of technical knowledge, poor educational background, and reluctance to use broadband for its high cost. Still it is sure that in near future Welsh can be able to set up an example in the field of digital communication.


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