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Question 1. In your own words, give a definition of "biomimicry" based on this video. Don't copy from the internet - write this in your own words.
Answer: Biomimetics is nothing but echoing of the elements and systems present in nature which helps in solving the complicated problems of human beings.
Question 2. What is the rationale that Benyus gives for why designers should consult nature when seeking solutions to their design problems?
Answer: In Biomimetics it is observed that there is no problem in the universe which is unsolved and for every problem already there will be a solution existing in nature. Janine Benyus is the person who has made the term biomimicry as a notable one. She suggested that designers have to consult the nature to solve their problems in designs because we are not the first one to build buildings, to synthesize cellulose, to manufacture paper, etc.. all these technologies are already existing in nature by some or other organisms. The rationale behind this we have so many examples where man has overlooked Into nature and the logic of things occurs in nature to solve his problems. The best example for this is Leonardo da Vinci applied biomimicry to study birds and thought to discover the flying machine by applying those concepts but unfortunately, he was not successful in making a flying machine but all his learnings are not wasted as later this source inspired Wright brothers in their invention of the airplane in 1903.
Question 3. Give THREE EXAMPLES of design solutions from nature that were mentioned in this video. For each example, state (i) the question that the designer was trying to solve, (ii) the organism that the designer looked to for a solution, and (iii) how that organism helped the designer implement a solution.
Answer: Example 1:
Question: Are we first persons to discover Bullet Train
Organism: King Fisher Bird
Solution: J. R. Watson observed that Kingfisher rounded in front, enters into tunnel, buildup the pressure, and when it gets exited produces an explosive sound travelling with very fast speed. Watson studied about kingfisher and thought that the bird is able to enter from one density like air to the density like water by a little dashing. By this, he invented bullet train which goes 100% faster on 15% less electricity.
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Question: Are we first persons to protect ourselves from bacteria.
Organism: Galapagos Shark
Solution: on the surface of the Galapagos shark it will not have any bacteria, it will not be dirty, and do not have barnacles. This is not due to its fastness in moving. To keep its body away from bacteria, it will not use any chemical. Its skin pattern keeps the bacteria away from landing and it prevents the adhering of bacteria. Now a days this technology is preferred in hospitals because even though costly disinfectants are used for cleaning purpose in hospitals bacteria are developing resistance to those chemicals and spreading infections a lot. It is reported in U.S that many people are dying due to infections that they acquire from hospitals.
Question: Are we the first person to coat the building to provide a cool environment.
Organism: Little Critter in Namibian Desert
Solution: In Namibian desert little critter will not have fresh water available to drink, but it takes the water which will obtain from the fog. The bumps which they have will acts like a magnet for water. They have hydrophilic tips and its sides will have a waxy nature. The fog that gets in contact will be get stored on its tips and it will enters into its mouth by flowing from tips. A scientist named Andrew Parker observed this and thought to use this in architectural firms and used this technology as a process to coat the buildings in order to create a cool environment inside.
Question 4. Visit Benyus' website. Benyus and her team have arranged a myriad of ideas into three main categories - Biological Strategies, Inspired Ideas, and Resources. Browse through any one of these three areas and pick just one example that fascinates you and write a two paragraph description on how it exemplifies the biomimicry concept.
Answer: This is a specific process that was adopted by a living organism in nature for its survival.
The photosynthesis process that was adopted by plants which take carbon dioxide into it for its energy requirements and releases oxygen into the atmosphere. In this process series of steps takes place where plants take solar energy, carbon dioxide and water from the atmosphere and produce oxygen and the organic compounds in return. To carry out this process two reactions namely light reactions and dark reactions will take place. In light reactions, solar energy taken by the plant is converted into ATP and NADPH and stimulates chlorophyll molecules. The chlorophyll molecules that are released will get replaced by electrons present in water and by photolysis process, the electrons of water get split into oxygen and protons. At last, oxygen is obtained as a byproduct in the process.
This is a biological strategy that was adopted by pants for their energy requirements but due to this strategy, human beings will be get benefitted as this process results in the liberation of oxygen into the atmosphere. In other words, we can tell that human beings are totally dependent on plants for meeting their oxygen demands.
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