AR300 Art History - Ashworth College
Art works across the world and its value
Briefly define art history as an academic field based on your understanding of the readings.
Art history is the crucial part of the academic field where art objects are studied according to their historical stages and features of development on a contextual basis. In art history related studies there is thorough research on the genre, designing of the objects, format of visualization along with stylish representation (Dutton, 2018). As an academic field, art history study includes the study of sculptures, paintings, architectural objects, furniture, ceramics, along with other decorative things. Importance of this art history is increasing day to day as this academic field is very closely related with social history, anthropology, aesthetics, and this art history provide a great insight to the artists about humanities subjects related discoveries. During research, after getting all of the features and designs researchers can make a conclusion and that's why art history has nowadays become popular.
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Discuss two of the natural and human threats to artworks that concern contemporary art historians. Provide specific examples of threats, the artworks involved, and how these threats affect the interpretation of the works by art historians.
Threats to artwork:
It is observed along with the time that there are enormous threats in the society where some of them are natural or climate oriented whereas in some cases these threats occur due to negligence or damages of artwork. Damages of artwork create a hindrance in the interpretation activities of historians. Some reasons for natural and man-made damages of art history are discussed below (Sauer, David, & Sakurai, 2018).
In all the sculptures, rock arts and paintings old civilization based peoples used to include natural colors which were free of all kinds of chemicals or preservatives. As a result, along with time humidity is the main thing which has a great role to damage the stability of paintings and damage an art history based study object. All of the rock arts and paintings need mainly relative humidity level of 50 percent which is very crucial. Along with global warming, the temperature level is increasing and it damages lots of rock arts and other art histories.
In most of the caves, rock-cut arts temperature is a great enemy. Due to the high enhancement of temperature all the painting materials become rotten or damaged. Sometimes, due to rainy seasons or other high-temperature related accidents like landslides, and others also damages the rock arts, cave wall based sculptures and many others.
Pollution and chemical gasses:
Along with the civilization level, pollution level becomes very high. Mainly the emission of obnoxious gasses from industrial areas creates a great issue in all of the art histories. It can be expressed by Taj Mahal, India, longest wall of China where the only pollution is the cause of damages of such old heritages or art histories.
It is observed in most of the rock cart arts or natural art history based articles that, human beings intentionally has made graffiti by sprayers, colors and other chemical agents. Adding substandard materials like chalk painting upon the rock-based arts or sculptures create a great issue in the art histories and create great damage.
Effects of threats to artwork in the interpretation of historians:
Such threats which are occurred naturally or by human beings create great issue n the historian based interpretation procedures. Due to damage, all the pigments become damaged and it makes historians helpless to utilize radiocarbon technology-based techniques upon these to discover the age and other information regarding the art history. Sometimes, natural procedures such as accumulation of rocks, and minerals upon the historical sculptures create a great issue to the historians to find out the true value. It not only creates hindrances but also make the historians misguided through providing wrong results. Maintenances of these art history based objects are highly crucial to know and discover the history of human civilizations. Natural activities are not totally in control of human beings whereas human beings have to control their own activities to discover their own histories and help the historian in their determination procedures.
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Explain the construction of megalithic architecture and dome building, tracing its history from pre-historic art to the Renaissance.
Construction of megalithic architecture:
According to historian primary and secondary sources of information, the word Megalith represents Large stone. In the Stone Age, such large stone was utilized to construct the monuments or other large stone based structures (Harris, 2018). Megalithic architecture is totally featured of sculptures or art history based objects without making any kinds of utilization of morters, or concrete based products. Prehistorical ages are mainly characterized by such structures in enormous places of the world. Along with monuments, there were a large number of domes which are nowadays very significant to trace the history from pre-historic time period to the Renaissance. After lots of research, till now the meaning and construction procedures of such, menhirs, round circle based tombs are till now unknown to the society and historians.
1. Tomb, Newgrange, Ireland. c. 3000-2500 BCE.
Architectural innovations of the tomb of Newgrange, Ireland:
Through architectural innovations, a lot of things are now known to historians about the great megalithic mounds. It was first discovered by removing the materials of road building in 1699 (Prendergast & Cooney, 2018). It was rediscovered in 1962 where quartz quoting was done by architectures and government to rebuild the place again. This tomb denotes home of Oenghus, who is the God of Love. Newgrange tomb passage comprised of tri-spiral designs which denote the Irish invitation in this land as this tri-spiral sign is a very significant Irish mark.
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2. Interior of tholos tomb, Mycenae, Greece. c. 1300-1200 BCE.
Tholos tombs in Greece:
Just like the Newgrange tomb in Ireland, there is another ancient megalithic architectural tomb of Tholos in Greece. It is basically a burial structure of funeral activities after death where the false dome is created in superpositions by mudbricks or stones (Liritzis, Polymeris, Vafiadou, Sideris & Levy, 2018). This tomb construction procedure is very similar to the other megalithic structures. This tomb comprised of many sculptures and paintings which indicates the dark age time period after the collapse of Mycenaean civilization.
3. Pantheon, Rome. 110-128 CE.
Pantheon in Rome:
It was a former Roman temple in Rome, Itali. It is a great megalithic structure what was made for all of the gods. After architectural innovations historians have come to know that right hand of Roman Emperor Augustus, Agrippa had built this (Masi, Stefanou, & Vannucci, 2018). In its front portion, most of the eminent persons of the Roman empire were buried. It is one of the most preserved monuments of Rome. It was completed around 126 to 128 A.D.
4. Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral. 1420-1436 CE.
Dome of Florence Cathedral:
The Dome of Florence Cathedral has another name of Filippo Brunelleschi's dome. It was constructed as the largest dome of the world. But, nowadays this dome has been facing a great issue due to size. Due to the very large size it prevents the construction based activities. It has the structure of a double shell where two sturdy pillars are for providing mechanical support to the entire dome. Architectural innovations have revealed that this megalithic structure was built according to the Gothic style where it is nearly 180 feet above from the ground and it has a width of 150 feet (Blasi, Bonechi, D'Alessandro, Guardincerri, & Vaccaro, 2018). Actually, during its construction, nobody knows the original procedure of construction of a dome. During the innovation of this Florence, tomb historians have faced a crucial issue because such high weight based turkey wood is not available nowadays. In the entire dome, no conventional technical procedure was followed. As a result, historians have faced a great issue. In the innovation period, a three-speed hoist was also present. According to historians, such tools are the only way to make this structure as a strong one.
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