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Basic concepts of Atomic Physics

Physics that deals with the arrangement of electrons around nucleus and properties of atoms are known as Atomic Physics. Internal workings of the nucleus are not considered in atomic physics and it is considered as a single body, with spin, mass, and charge.

Atomic Physics is often confused with nuclear physics but both are fairly distinct. Nuclear Physics encompasses neutron, proton and their interaction inside the nucleus of an atom. Forces studied in both these branches are also different. The nucleus is bounded by strong nuclear force while an electromagnetic force acts between electrons and nucleus.  Molecular Physics or Chemistry is also closely linked with atomic physics. It deals with the study of the structure of molecular electron system formed by the interaction of atoms with each other.

These subjects draw intensely on Quantum Mechanics for their hypothetical establishment in light of the fact that the states electrons can occupy in an atom or molecule are different solutions of the Schrödinger equation. Though atomic elements are normally found in its ground state ( i.e. electron configuration with lowest total energy), they can also exist in an infinite number of excited states. Radiations are emitted and absorbed when the atom undergoes a transition from one state to another. Spectroscopy, a technique used to classify the atomic energy levels, has played an important role in the understanding of the electronic structure of an atom.

There are three distinct angles to atomic physics: the electronic structure of atoms, The technique of spectroscopy to measure electronic transitions between different states, and the variety of chemical elements represented by the periodic table and their properties, which are governed by their electronic structure.

Physicist Neils Bohr and Ernest Rutherford predicted a model of the atom in which negatively charged electrons believed to be orbiting around positively charged nucleus in particular energy shells. The shell structure can be verified by solving Schrodinger equation for an atom. Different energy states along with their energy can be identified this way.

Electrons need to attain energy to change their energy state or shell. This energy is quantized and is available in the integer multiples of photons, elementary particle of electromagnetic radiation. By going through electromagnetic spectrum all possible transitions between energy levels can be identified. It is possible to map even fine structure of the spectrum, i.e. small bifurcations betweens levels of indistinguishable energy.

States of Hydrogen or Hydrogen-like atom, which contains only one electron, can be calculated analytically. Higher systems are difficult to solve. Even Hamiltonians of average complexity are difficult to solve and complexity increases as we move from, hydrogen, helium to the rest of the periodic table. Perturbation theory adds approximation to the known states from the simpler system to adapt them (and their energies) to the more complex situation.

Properties of most atomic systems are classified by Mendeleev's periodic table. These properties depend on various factors like the interaction of electrons with the nucleus, and neighboring electron, wavelike nature of particles, and Pauli Exclusion principle. Various elements of the table are specified not only by their atomic weight and chemical activity but by a mix of properties like moment, electron affinity, magnetism, polarizability and angular momentum.

Importance of Atomic Physics

The concept of atomic physics has led to improvement in our daily lives by providing the basic understanding necessary for developing new instrumentation and techniques for medical applications, such as computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasonic imaging, and laser surgery.

The structure of matter, in the form of atoms and molecules, is a fundamental subject in physics. For example, Our understanding of the appearance of the visible world comes from the structure of atoms and how light interacts with them. The importance of atomic and molecular physics to other branches of science and technology is clear. The subject is the basis for quantum chemistry, laser technology, plasma physics and interpretation of astrophysical spectra, to name a few.

The concept of quantization is, in many ways, the most shimmering example of effects which Bohr's model of the atom has had for society. In effect, Bohr's notion that atoms discharge light quanta with very specific energies is at the rear of many of the solutions on which we, as humans, depend in our daily lives.

When the microwave inside our kitchen hums, it is actually huge releases of energy in the form of discrete leaps which cause the temperature to rise. The frequency of the microwaves of around 2.45 GHz means that the energy of released is simply perfect for the excitation of the water molecules in the food.

Very few of us probably think about the fact that the DVD AND BLU-RAY player in our room uses laser diodes to read information on the DVD. Laser technology is dependent totally on the guidelines behind atomic physics because laser beam light is produced by quantum leaps. Energy lost or gained during a transition is only in the multiplier of a photon which implies that the light has a unique frequency and wavelength and can therefore also be used to evaluate time and length very precisely. For instance, Denmark sometimes back was on the verge of losing various contracts since they didn't have a laser-based standard of length. So they couldn't convince the world with adequate unwavering quality that what they expressed was one meter long was, was truly, one meter long.

The results of the interactions of the world at small scale, as communicated in atomic physics, have numerous more applications, and one of the key elements in Bohr's model - the unique light frequencies of the atoms -is employed extensively to learn the anatomy of matter at the atomic levels.

The techniques and ideas of atomic, nuclear, and particle physics have been used and are being used to solve important problems in basic and applied areas of physics, chemistry, and biology that are closely linked to the prevailing major societal problems in medicine, energy resources, new custom-made materials and environmental pollution, as well as areas that encroach the broad cultural and historical interest.

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