Transplants, Transplantation, Types of grafts

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TRANSPLANTATION

Introduction

It is the process in which failed organ or tissue is replaced with functional organ or tissues from healthy donor to ailing recipient to save many lives.  The part which is transplanted is called grafts, they usually show rejection as body's immune system have auto antigens which recognise the body cell from other foreign cells except if graft is taken from own body called auto graft or from genetically identical individual. The transplantation can be carried out through surgical procedure and its success rate has been increased these days and it helps to increase the life span. If the transplant has been done the patient is supposed to be under medication for life time to avoid rejection of other organ.

Types of grafts

The degree of immune response depends upon the genetic disparity between the donor and recipient. Following are the types of grafts used :

Xenograft- Grafts between members of different species where immune response of body is very high and done in very rare cases.

Autogrfaft- Grafts from one part of our own body to other part, this is genetically same hence does not show rejection.

Isografts - Grafts between genetically identical twins, they also don't show any rejection

Allograft - Grafts between different individuals of same species, this process is carried out the most and has to be cautious about the rejection by looking for many criteria and also by giving immunosuppressant's.

History 

It started in 1869 with skin transplant for the first time then discovery of human kidney transplant was the first transplant which was performed by Russian surgeon in 1935 and successful transplant was first seen in identical twins in 1954 of kidney transplant, with the years of trials and advancement in the techniques and procedure there are now numerous numbers of successful transplantations being observed. Organs that can be transplanted are liver, kidney, hair, eyes, penis, heart, skin, lungs, pancreas intestine etc.

Types

Initial methods of hair transplant was based on removing the entire patch of scalp and then remove the graft from that portion of scalp and the improved version of this procedure is known as FUT follicular unit transplant. The modern method is known as FUE or follicular unit extraction which does not involve any cuts.

Progress

Lot of researches in species like mice have made us realise the importance of transplant and has helped in improving the procedure to move towards more efficient and successful transplant. There are many other issues like organ trafficking which has created chaos in the population. There are many other ethical issues to be taken care of like religious reasons arise which should be sort and taken care of while dealing with different patients, there are consent taking issues , the donor matching, cost and many more complications are involved. It is highly complex procedure yet very useful one to save life.

Organ trafficking

It is an obnoxioustrend virally spreading these days in which a huge racket is involved in getting girls and boys in to trap by just a sip of drink and cut their organs off with a very poor stitch on the body and discard them for emergency medical health support .This is being done as there is a huge demand of organs all over the countries and are being sold in high rates. There are many people currently in the donation list and an average of 25 people are dying every day and hence it is very important to be careful with the strangers you meet and also to not trust any individuals may it be your friends. It is therefore advised to inform your family before you go anywhere it's not about your privacy but it's about your safety. The world is no more a safe place to live in, Your safety is in your hand. Be a mature and responsible individual to live a happy and healthy life.

Procedure

1)  The consent has to be taken from the physician and he gives the report of your need for transplant.

2)  Financial arrangements has to be done as it is highly costly for which health insurance manages half of its amount yet concerned person should be contacted to know relevant information about the condition and programmes available,

3)  To go and get registered in the donation bank where they put u in list according to their queries and complication the priorities will be given.

4)  Consult the nearby hospital so that transplantation can be carried out smoothly.

5)  Sometimes donors can come to see the health of recipient or recipient can demand to see donor to thank but for all this they maintain complete confidentiality. To meet each other the consent should be given from both the sides of the family.

Conditions

There are conditions when a patient is having sudden cardiac arrest and there is no chance of survival then it recommended to tell the family members to remove him from the artificial life support and carry the process  to soon transplant the organ but in case of brain death except brain all body organs get the blood supply so the organs can be taken anytime and the relatives will get more time to stay with the patient. Relatives can see the patient at the time of death but soon they will be moved out so that the time difference between the death and organ transplantation should be as less as possible.

Organ donation

There are various organizations which manages organ transplant with all legal issues, they are offering a donor card who after his death can easily donate his organs without any consent and all. There are many cases of brain dead patients so this thinking should be changed and made people aware of the positive insight of this procedure. Organs donation by a single person can save life of many more individuals. There are lot more awareness needed in this field which can be promoted by various means like advertisements through popular personalities will give good impact on population, attractive and meaningful posters and brochures, short films etc.

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