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Industrial Chemistry

Industrial chemistry is based on the beneficiaries and utilization of the raw materials that are extracted and the modification of properties of their products. It is the branch of chemistry that mainly focusses on the chemical and physical processes involved. The chemists of this branch is required to have a broad outlook of chemistry and keep the sustainability of the environment in mind as it has various applications in pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology, manufacturing industries, quality control, purification of waste water engineering, etc.

Importance of Industrial Chemistry in Academic Curriculum:

Industrial chemistry in academic curriculum is a subject of growing importance as it provides a practical perspective towards the branch of chemistry. Industrial chemistry also focusses on administration and framework of an organization, pollution control, technical aspect of economics, etc.

Basic Concept of Industrial Chemistry

In industrial chemistry, an extensive study and a full time curriculum is a necessity to cover and comprehend each layer of the subject in the undergraduate and post graduate programmes of the universities. The degree course offered in industrial chemistry comprises of scrutiny and development of the products that the common mass uses on day to day basis, thus, including the regular alterations required in the conditions of the products in the form of merchandised goods for the mankind's betterment. The course usually trains the students with unmediated knowledge on subject matter along with introduction to equipment handling in the industries (Heaton, 1984).

The existence of the chemical industry is based on the extraction of the various chemicals from the raw materials and composing them, eventually, into the products for the consumers.The major sectors of the chemical industry are plastics, synthetic resins, rubbers, fertilizers, inorganic, organics, dyes, paints, pharmaceuticals, etc. (Heaton, 1984).

Importance of Industrial Chemistry

In the assessment of bio-refinery process of bioethanol, it is found that the uses of bioethanol is widespread in the biofuel sector of the chemical industry as it is directly used as a propellant or as a substitute for gasoline. Also, the investigation discovered an inadequacy in the elaborative knowledge of thesustainabilityof involving the procedures for conversion of ethanol despite the enormous efforts given in innovation and development. An investigation also claims that one of the most innovative methods of forming "lignocellulosic bioethanol" is by treating biomass with dilute form of acid, thermomechanical procedures or explosion of steam. The product recovered from the process is "lignin"that can be dissolved in an organic solvent so as to sustain in its pure form and can accredit as an additive (Rossetti, 2016).

Another example can be the generation of synthesis gas that is required for mixture of various proportions of gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide and nitrogen and hydrogen for the synthesis of methanol gas, water gas, ammonia, etc. Before World War II, a general method of coke's gasification from hard coal and by means of steam and air, coke in low temperature can be retrieved from brown coal. After the war, natural gas and oil were used as the raw material supply for the industrial processes. In the recent past, the conventional method came into picture with slight modifications in its technique due to which the plant's capacity has risen from three percent to twelve percent followed by sixteen percent in the years 1976, 1982 and 2010. Investigation is going on for an alternate feedstock such as wood, biomass, peat, etc. for the production of synthetic gas. High consumption of energy in the process of gasification of coal is a significant characteristic. Thirty to forty percentage of coal is combusted to conduct this process and release heat supply, thus, a study is initiated to find an alternative to decrease the load of coal. Rheinbraun in collaboration with a Jülich nuclear plant for researching and Bergbau-Forschungconducted an investigation to comprehend the various applications of the heat requirement in the process from the high temperature nuclear reactors that are gas-cooled. They discovered that, in the gasification process, when the reactor releases helium gas at a temperature of 950 degree Celsius is the requisite for providing the necessary heat (Weissermel, 2008).

Light hydrocarbons electric arc cracking that is used for production of acetylene is also one of the methods of manufacturing hydrogen. Carbon monoxide can be converted in the presence of steam for production of carbon dioxide and hydrogen from which, the carbon monoxide can be eliminated via washing the products under sufficient pressure. Finally, in the purification process, the amounts of traces of carbon monoxide are suspended by conducting a reaction between hydrogen and methane in presence of water (H2O). This entire process takes place in a temperature condition of 300 to 400 degree Celsius in the presence of a catalyst such as Nickel. A modified method has been introduced which involves hydrogen's complete isolation from the gaseous mixtures with the help of porous layers. The mixture is allowed to pass through series of fibres consisting of voids from which only hydrogen and helium molecules diffuse. Thus, by this method, methane, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon monoxide can be separate. Industrial manufacturing of hydrogen can also be done by electrolysis directly or indirectly. The direct process can be done by hydrogen fluoride, water and twenty two to twenty five percent of hydrochloric acid; this process is known as diaphragm cell process. The indirect method involves sodium amalgam; the process is known as mercury process - hydrogen is a by-product. It is more economical - although, the percentage of hydrogen formed is less, it is formed in its purest form (Weissermel, 2008).

 Tips to solve Industrial chemistry problems

Keep the constants at the tip of your hand:

The trick to make mathematical calculations quickly is to make small approximations while doing the calculations. It's easier to work with whole numbers while making calculations. Remembering key constants used in calculations and their approximate values helps in easily solving the problems.

Practice makes perfect:

To become familiar with mathematical model of questions that frequently come, one needs to practice as many questions as one can until one feels familiar and confident with all the different models.

Theoretical conceptual knowledge:

Having a thorough understanding of the formulas can help one using it in a majority of the problems that one come across. Without the concept behind the numbers, the numbers are meaningless.

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