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Part 1-

Fill in the Blank.

Identify the word(s) that best complete(s) the statement or answer(s) the question.

1. To show the importance of their subject, Egyptian artists typically portrayed pharaohs as _________ than other human figures.

2. Under the _________ dynasty, mathematicians developed the decimal system.

3. During the Classic Period of Maya civilization, Maya cities were mostly independent __________.

4. When the ownership of a manor was granted to a new lord, the _______ remained on the land to serve the new lord.

5. One major reason why ___________ began to emerge in medieval Europe was that better-educated clergy were needed for Church positions.

6. Judaism is a _________ religion because it is based on belief in one god.

7. One accomplishment of the Chinese during the Zhou period was that the made the first ______.

8. Hindus believe that everything is part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called _________.

9. Unlike Francis Bacon, _________ believed that the best road to understanding was through human reasoning.

10. Some scholars think that Old Stone Age people created cave paintings as part of _________ rituals.

Short Answer

11. Summarize Describe the area where the Aztecs built their capital city Tenochtitlán. How did the Aztecs adapt to this environment?

12. Summarize Describe how the geography of the Korean peninsula affected where people settled and how they lived.

13. Test Conclusions Explain conclusion in the following statement, and give examples to support it: Medieval society was a network of mutual obligations.

14. Recognize Cause and Effect Explain how the Hundred Years' War caused the political systems in England and France to develop differently.

15. Determine Relevance Explain how geography affected the development of Constantinople as the "New Rome."

16. Synthesize Information Describe the centers of learning in the Muslim world. How did Islam influence the development of these centers?

17. Synthesize Information Why did the earliest civilizations arise near major rivers? What resources did these locations provide?

18. Draw Conclusions Explain how trade in the East African city-states resulted in a blending of cultures. Provide examples.

19. Express Problems Clearly Describe the mixture of the secular and religious worlds in the medieval Christian Church.

20. Make Generalizations How did the conquests of Alexander the Great lead to the development of the Hellenistic civilization?

Part 2-

Fill in the Blank

Identify the word(s) that best complete(s) the statement or answer(s) the question.

1. European ___________ of the slave trade affected African states in the 1600s and 1700s in that African states competed to dominate the slave trade.

2. When the first European traders arrived in the 1500s, the Japanese responded by _________ trade with the West.

3. Britain passed the __________ Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing.

4. According to ____________ economists, the cure for poverty was an unrestricted free market.

5. __________ strongly supported laissez-faire economics as the best way to help businesses succeed.

6. The ____________ were a socialist group that had a strong influence on British politics.

7. David Livingstone believed that opening the interior of Africa to Christianity and trade would end the ___________ __________.

8. The _________ War was sparked by the discovery of gold and diamonds on Boer-held lands.

9. The first stage of Hitler's __________ strategy was usually The Luftwaffe attacking ground targets from the air.

10. The Germans changed their tactics in preparing for Operation ________ ________ by beginning to bomb London and other cities.

Short Answer

11. Summarize Summarize several reasons why Britain was able to become a global power by the 1700s.

12. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment Do you think the results of the Industrial Revolution were worth the human cost? Explain your reasoning.

13. Identify Central Issues Many creoles were influenced by the works of Enlightenment thinkers and supported social change. Considering this, why do you think they generally refused to support Father Hidalgo's revolt in Mexico?

"Shut in from everything that is pleasant, with no chance to learn . . . grinding their little lives away in this dusty room, they are no more than the wire screens that separate the great lumps of coal from the small. They had no games; when their day's work is done, they are too tired for that. They know nothing but the difference between slate and coal."

-"The Labor Standard," 1877

14. Identify Point of View The quotation describes work in a coal mine. Who is the subject of the quotation? How can you tell? What changes in the laws did accounts like this help to bring about? Write a newspaper headline for this quote that reflects the writer's point of view.

15. Summarize Describe the main reasons for the great economic growth in the United States following the Civil War.

16. Analyze Information From 1803 to 1853 the United States acquired five large areas of Western land, extending its territories from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Identify these areas labeled on the map with the letters A-E. What economic reasons do you think caused the United States to expand its territories to the Pacific Ocean?

17. Determine Relevance President Roosevelt pledged to follow "the policy of the good neighbor" toward Latin American countries in the 1930s. Why did he think this policy was necessary? What did he do to follow it?

18. Summarize How did the Soviet Union's command economy work? Was it successful?

"Without consideration of ‘traditions' and prejudices, it [Germany] must find the courage to gather our people and their strength for an advance along the road that will lead this people from its present restricted living space to new land and soil, and hence also free it from the danger of vanishing from the earth or of serving others as a slave nation."

19. Draw Conclusions Read the quote above. Describe the course of action that Hitler thinks Germany should follow.

20. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment What actions did Allied governments take to control public opinion during World War II? Were these actions justified?

 

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Part 1

Fill in the Blank

Identify the word(s) that best complete(s) the statement or answer(s) the question.

1. To show the importance of their subject, Egyptian artists typically portrayed pharaohs as larger than other human figures.

2. Under the Gupta dynasty, mathematicians developed the decimal system.

3. During the Classic Period of Maya civilization, Maya cities were mostly independent city-states

4. When the ownership of a manor was granted to a new lord, the serfs remained on the land to serve the new lord.

5. One major reason why universities began to emerge in medieval Europe was that better-educated clergy were needed for Church positions.

6. Judaism is a monotheistic religion because it is based on belief in one god.

7. One accomplishment of the Chinese during the Zhou period was that they made the first geographical maps.

8. Hindus believe that everything is part of the unchanging, all-powerful spiritual force called Brahman.

9. Unlike Francis Bacon, René Descartes believed that the best road to understanding was through human reasoning.

10. Some scholars think that Old Stone Age people created cave paintings as part of religious rituals.

Short Answer

11. Summarize Describe the area where the Aztecs built their capital city Tenochtitlan. How did the Aztecs adapt to this environment?
Tenochtitlan was the capital city situated in center of the Aztec empire. It was established in 1325. This city served as the capital of the Aztec empire until it was conquered by Spanish conqueror Hernan Cortes in 1520. Aztecs adapted to their environment by building canoes for hunting and fishing. They also built dikes to stop backwater from percolating into agricultural land.

12. Summarize Describe how the geography of the Korean peninsula affected where people settled and how they lived.
Korea is made up of an area that is predominated by mountains. Therefore, the people living there had to utilize the coast and eat seafood, due to lack in farming area.

13. Test Conclusions Explain conclusion in the following statement, and give examples to support it: Medieval society was a network of mutual obligations.

Medieval society was a society that believed in exchange of traditional customs and vows. An example of such mutual obligation is the feudal contract as it involved exchange of pledge between lords and fiefs.

14. Recognize Cause and Effect Explain how the Hundred Years' War caused the political systems in England and France to develop differently.

The war caused a growing sense of national feeling in French people, which in turn increased the power of the kings in France. However, since English rulers had to turn to Parliament for funds to fight the war, it helped Parliament win the power of the purse. This gave Parliament greater political power. Also, after England lost its French lands, English rulers turned their attention to new trading ventures overseas.

15. Determine Relevance Explain how geography affected the development of Constantinople as the "New Rome."
The geography of Constantinople affected the development because it was the centre where they would go and trade. Constantinople gained its wealth because of trade. They had both the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, which were routes that connected most places. India would trade gems, Asia would trade spices, Egypt would trade wheat, the Vikings fur, and China would trade silk there. They also had a strong harbor.

16. Synthesize Information Describe the centers of learning in the Muslim world. How did Islam influence the development of these centers?

Islamic centers of learning exist not only for teaching academic subjects but also to impart Islamic manners and a particularly Islamic perspective. Some centers of learning are complete academic learning academies, while others exist to teach subjects exclusive or highly important to being a Muslim. Such subjects include how to read and speak Arabic, lessons on the Quran and the prophet Mohammed and how to properly perform the daily prayers.

Islamic Scholars made advances in philosophy, mathematics, medicine, and other fields. They also preserved the learning of earlier civilization by the translating ancient Persian, Sanskrit, and Greek texts in Arabic. (Hawkins, 2016).

17. Synthesize Information Why did the earliest civilizations arise near major rivers? What resources did these locations provide?
Earliest civilizations rose near major rivers because rivers provided several benefits. The benefits included clean water to drink, fishing for food and also provided opportunities for transport and trade.

18. Draw Conclusions Explain how trade in the East African city-states resulted in a blending of cultures. Provide examples.
Trade in East-African city states resulted in a blend of cultures because the western zone namely Ogaden was annexed to Ethiopia. This caused the creation of city-states. Swahili inter-marriage with east African people is also another example of this.

19. Express Problems Clearly Describe the mixture of the secular and religious worlds in the medieval Christian Church.
High clergy were nobles who had their own land and armies. Church officials were educated, so they were appointed to higher positions in the government. High Church officials were often relatives of secular rulers. This many people in the Church were distracted to money and power and monks began to ignore their oath to poverty. The monks were using the Church money for non-religious issues, which resulted in the Church to create reforms.

20. Make Generalizations How did the conquests of Alexander the Great lead to the development of the Hellenistic civilization?
Alexander through his conquests introduced culture and traditions of Greece. Asia and Africa were the two most important conquered countries where Hellenism blended with local cultures. Thus, Hellenism was born as a civilization which ruled for more than seven-hundred years (Zeitlin, 2016).

Part 2

Fill in the Blank

Identify the word(s) that best complete(s) the statement or answer(s) the question.

1. European expansion of the slave trade affected African states in the 1600s and 1700s in that African states competed to dominate the slave trade.

2. When the first European traders arrived in the 1500s, the Japanese responded by welcoming trade with the West.

3. Britain passed the Navigation Acts to regulate colonial trade and manufacturing.

4. According to Laissez-Faire economists, the cure for poverty was an unrestricted free market.

5. Liberals strongly supported laissez-faire economics as the best way to help businesses succeed.

6. The Fabian Society were a socialist group that had a strong influence on British politics.

7. David Livingstone believed that opening the interior of Africa to Christianity and trade would end the slave trade.

8. The Boer War was sparked by the discovery of gold and diamonds on Boer-held lands.

9. The first stage of Hitler's blitzkrieg strategy was usually the Luftwaffe attacking ground targets from the air.

10. The Germans changed their tactics in preparing for Operation Sea Lion by beginning to bomb London and other cities.

Short Answer

11. Summarize several reasons why Britain was able to become a global power by the 1700s.

Britain was able to become a global power because England controlled trade and most of the times Britain won during European conflicts. Scotland and England's free trade created a substantial market for farmers and manufacturers. Even Ireland had come under the rule of the English during this time.

12. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment Do you think the results of the Industrial Revolution were worth the human cost? Explain your reasoning.

The results of the Industrial Revolution were worth the human cost because although the workers were treated unfairly and harshly, the Industrial Revolution led to new technologies and medicines that made the world the way it is today.

13. Identify Central Issues Many creoles were influenced by the works of Enlightenment thinkers and supported social change. Considering this, why do you think they generally refused to support Father Hidalgo's revolt in Mexico?
The creoles generally refused to support Father Hidalgo's revolt because they considered his ideas to be populist, which led the public towards revolting against the ruling party.

"Shut in from everything that is pleasant, with no chance to learn . . . grinding their little lives away in this dusty room, they are no more than the wire screens that separate the great lumps of coal from the small. They had no games; when their day's work is done, they are too tired for that. They know nothing but the difference between slate and coal."

-"The Labor Standard," 1877

14. Identify Point of View The quotation describes work in a coal mine. Who is the subject of the quotation? How can you tell? What changes in the laws did accounts like this help to bring about? Write a newspaper headline for this quote that reflects the writer's point of view.

The subject is children who work in coalmines. One can tell that the subject is children since it refers to their lack of educational opportunities ("no chance to learn"); their "little lives"; and the "games" they do not play. Accounts like this helped to bring about laws limiting child labour. Early laws prohibited employers from hiring children under ten. Later laws banned the employment of children altogether. A newspaper headline might read, "Childhood in black soot" or "Childhood covered in coal." (Adelman, 2018).

15. Summarize Describe the main reasons for the great economic growth in the United States following the Civil War.
The main reasons for the great economic growth in the US post the Civil War were stable in the political situation, rights to private property, free system of enterprise, inexpensive labour supply, growing network of transport and newer technologies in communication.

16. Analyze Information From 1803 to 1853 the United States acquired five large areas of Western land, extending its territories from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Identify these areas labeled on the map with the letters A-E. What economic reasons do you think caused the United States to expand its territories to the Pacific Ocean?

A: Louisiana purchase

B: Texas Annexation

C: Oregon Country

D: Mexican Cession

E: Gadsden Purchase

The economic reasons were as follows:

• Desire to increase industrial and agricultural production.

• Inexpensive supply of land and labour

• Rights to private property

• Free system of enterprise

• Stability in the US political atmosphere. (Harvey & Rivett, 2017).

17. Determine Relevance President Roosevelt pledged to follow "the policy of the good neighbor" toward Latin American countries in the 1930s. Why did he think this policy was necessary? What did he do to follow it?

The Good Neighbour Policy implemented by President Roosevelt in the 1930s towards Latin American countries primarily focused on the non-interference and the non-intervention in the domestic affairs of a country (Ehrnström-Fuentes & Kröger, 2017). Furthermore, economic opportunities had been evident as a result of the flourishing trade due to the implementation of this policy.

The prime objective behind the implementation of the policy can be attributed to the feeling of the USA that its natural resources were being exploited or the business of its citizens were being threatened, the use of military intervention had often been implemented. This, in turn, made a bad impact on the Latin American countries regarding USA. In order to denounce the past military intervention, and to forge a better and friendlier relationship with the country, President Roosevelt had undertaken this particular policy (Ehrnström-Fuentes & Kröger, 2017).

18. Summarize How did the Soviet Union's command economy work? Was it successful?

In the Command Economy presented by Soviet Union, the government officials made the rudimentary decisions regarding economy. In a Command Economy, the government is responsible for making decisions of the production and sale of the goods rather than the free market (Altman & Morrison, 2015).

This strategy by the Soviet Union did not succeed as there was no competition and it had resulted in surpluses and shortages. Furthermore, the lack of competition led to the production of low-quality goods.

"Without consideration of ‘traditions' and prejudices, it [Germany] must find the courage to gather our people and their strength for an advance along the road that will lead this people from its present restricted living space to new land and soil, and hence also free it from the danger of vanishing from the earth or of serving others as a slave nation."

19. Draw Conclusions Read the quote above. Describe the course of action that Hitler thinks Germany should follow.
From the quote mentioned by Adolf Hitler, it may be identified that he seeks to push his country towards excellence. However, his ideologies have not been clear to many historians. He speaks of the necessity for Germany to survive, but disregards other races and creeds as the overall population of the country.

According to Hitler, expelling the inferior race had been a prime agenda or the fundamental step in order to survive in a holocaust or the war for supremacy (Fernandez, 2016). Hitler believed that Germany does not deserve to be slave nation serving other countries; hence supremacy played a vital role in the formation of his conceptions.

20. Demonstrate Reasoned Judgment What actions did Allied governments take to control public opinion during World War II? Were these actions justified?

Arriving at a judgement through reason is referred to as Reasoned Judgement. Reasoned Judgement involves considerations on all bases for both the judge and the individual being judged. During the World War II, the use of propaganda had been implemented, namely Uncle Sam and Rosie the Riveter (Fernandez, 2016). Furthermore, the allied governments had implemented censorship in the propaganda. Additionally, the food had been rationed, while prices and wages had to be regulated. It is to be considered that providing support to the troops had been essential and hence, the actions, though not completely reasonable, may be regarded as reasonable judgement in the particular situation.

 

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