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Sheep Heart Dissection

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Question 1: Compare the heart of the sheep to the human heart by viewing the heart model.

Answer: Label the Heart

1. Superior vena cava

2. Brachiocephalic

3. Left carotid

4. Left subclavian

5. Aorta

6. Pulmonary artery

7. Right atrium

8. Pulmonary valve

9. Left atrium

10. Right ventricle

11. Chordae tendinea

12. Left ventricle

13. Mitral valve

Question 2: What muscles hold the valves in place?

Answer: The papillary muscles and chordate tendinea are the structures that hold the valves together.

Question 3: What are the flaps on the front of the atria called?

Answer: Auricles

Question 4: The large vessel on the front of the heart that lies in front of the aorta is the

Answer: Left descending anterior artery

Question 5: What are the tendons that connect the valves to the muscles?

Answer: Chordae tendinea are similar to tendons that attch the valves to the muscles.

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Question 6: How can you tell which side of the heart is the ventral surface?

Answer: The pulmonary vein that supplies oxygen-rich blood to the left atrium is useful in identifying the ventral surface of the heart.

Question 7: What is the purpose of the coronary artery and what results if there is a blockage in this vessel?

Answer: Coronary arteries are three in number. They are the blood vessels that supply blood to the walls of the heart i.e. myocardium. Heart muscle requires continuous oxygenated blood supply and in the event of the blockage of coronary artery the heart muscle is severely affected which results I the death of the cardiac tissue which is commonly referred as myocardial infarction or heart attack.

Question 8: These are the 4 major blood vessels connected to the heart. Indicate which vessels connect to which chambers:

Answer: a. Pulmonary Artery to the Right ventricle

b. Pulmonary Vein to the Left Auricles

c. Aorta to the Left ventricle

d. Superior/Inferior Vena Cava to the Right auricle

Question 9: What is the purpose of heart valves?

Answer: Heart valve are the muscular structures that facilitate the flow of blood in a single direction ad prevent the regurgitation or back flow of the blood into the adjacent chambers.

Question 10: How do the walls of the atria compare with the walls of the ventricles and why are they different?

Answer: The walls of the atria have thinner width I comparison to the walls of atria. This is due to the difference in the amount of pressure applied by ventricles as they supply blood to the farthest distance i.e. until toes whereas a relatively lower pressure is applied as the atria only empty into ventricles that are adjacent to them.

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Question 11. If the right ventricle was filled with fluid, describe what would happen to the tricuspid valve when the right ventricle was squeezed. Why does this happen?

Answer: Right ventricle is supplied with the blood from the right auricle and once the ventricle is filled with the blood the tricuspid valve closes. Ventricle empties the blood into the pulmonary trunk and to prevent the regurgitation of the blood in the auricle the tricuspid valve closes.

Question 12: If you look closely at the aorta, which leads away from the left ventricle and the pulmonary trunk which leads away from the right ventricle and were able to feel them, you would notice that the wall of the aorta is significantly thicker than that of the pulmonary trunk. What accounts for this difference?

Answer: Pulmonary trunck as the name suggests supplies the blood to the pulmonary system.. On the other hand aorta is the mjor artery in the body that supplies blood to all the organs below heart. This requires more pressure to be applied on the blood and the arteries should be thicker to sustain the consistent pressure and hence the aorta walls are thicker than the walls of pulmonary trunk

Question 13. Can an artery carry deoxygenated blood? Explain.

Answer: Yes, Pulmonary artery carries the deoxygenated blood. Arteries are the blood vessels that carry the blood away from the heart to the organs. However the pulmonary artery carries the deoxygenated blood collected in the heart to the lungs for the process of oxygenation.

Question 14: Using words, trace blood flow through the major blood vessels, heart, and lungs starting AND ending with deoxygenated blood returning from the body.

Answer: Blood circulation supplies the oxygen-rich blood to all the parts of the body. The arteries, veins, capillaries and the heart are majorly involved in the circulatory system. The circulation in the body can be broadly classified into pulmonary and systemic circulation. Systemic circulation involves all the body parts except lungs whereas the pulmonary system includes the lung and heart. It is a cycle of circulation between the two heart beats. At the start of the cycle the blood from the heart atria flows into the ventricles through the tricuspid and bicuspid valves. Once the ventricle is filled they pump the blood into the arteries i.e. aorta and pulmonary artery by left ventricle and right ventricle respectively. Aorta carries blood from heart and descends into the lower parts of the body supplying to myocardium, and branches into brachial artery, hepatic artery, gonadal arteries ad at the tissues the branches into finer capillaries. These capillaries supply the blood and collect the deoxygenated blood and veins collect the blood from all the organs to form the superior vena cava . This largest vein supplies blood to right auricle which empties into right ventricle. Right ventricle pumps into pulmonary trunks which takes blood from the heart to lungs. Pulmonary artery branches into arterioles and further into capillaries at the alveoli where the gas exchange takes place. The carbon dioxide is released through the alveoli and the blood is oxygenated which is collected by the venules that collect as pulmonary vein that opens into left auricle and then further into left ventricle. Left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta starting the cycle again.

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