Research Paper for Advance Meter Infrastructure Assignment Help
This is research paper for advance meter infrastructure :
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3. Introduction must include motivation and background, literature review of recent scientific paper covering the topic and leading to the submission hypothesis based on the gap analysis of the previously published research
4. The work should consider improving knowledge by giving scientific contribution to either methodological knowledge, or a class of problems, and use the case only to test the hypothesis
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The current research is about advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and its impact on energy conservation. This study will provide details of the newly developed system that will help the United Arab Emirates in vatious ways such as; customer satisfaction, accuracy of bills and more benefits that will be discussed in this research. The AMI offers an advantage of reading the energy consumption in the meter for the usage of gas, water, and electrical energy. The outcomes by using this infrastructure is efficient utilization of energy, creative energy sources development, and smart grids that connects different energy sources establishment. These metering devices are predominantly useful for household consumption and industries which utilize the light sources. This is also useful for small and medium sized businesses. The European organization meant for energy conservation has already laid strategy, goals regarding efficient usage of energy sources, reduction of emission of greenhouse gases, and to increase the energy sources which are renewable (Omahen, Souvent & Luskovec, 2009).
Nowadays, smart meters are receiving great importance as they help the individuals to know how much energy they are consuming. This growing trend is strongly in relation to the advanced metering infrastructure we discussed above. The reason for this trend is the possibility for a consumer to determine the consumption rate and mitigate water usage. This is in fact the whole purpose of metering resource usage. Therefore, this will help them in managing their personal budget depending on the price of consumption.
With the introduction of this metering technology, there are many changes in them like providing accurate bill information, showing data in the local display which everyone can understand, control and utilizing them for multipurpose (Heat, water, and gas) has been increased and the demand in this field is higher. Supervision is no more a constraint.
Moreover, when coming to its cost benefits for household users and for small business, there is a local data display which can be used to monitor consumption and there are literally no additional costs.
Utility losses and technical losses have a positive relationship (Ameren, 2012). This case can be prevented and avoided by using this advanced metering infrastructure. One of the main technical beneficial is reduction of meter reading accuracy. By using advanced metering infrastructure, we are reducing the human error which that has a huge impact on the accuracy of meter reading, as it is a result of not having or getting the reading in the same date of collecting the billing date. Moreover, another benefit is that the AMI system doesn't require meter readers since the meter reading is automated (Ameren 2012) which results into less labors and more savings for the authority by reducing the manpower.
In the current trend, we can see the usage of Zigbee technology which is one of the applications that related to internet of thing network, and this is an example of how to address the following wireless and is available at low cost and this technology is serving for the use of mobile phones and also for meters which are used for multi-operational purposes. The purpose of this wireless technology is to deploy connectivity across devices at a low cost and it is possible to apply remote control to enable two-way data exchange.
Furthermore, moving on the investment cost related to the authority/ company depends mainly on two sections. The first section is purchasing the new meters and installing them. The other section is training and education the new employees on the system. During this stage testing and developing the system is done by utilization of devices.
Therefore, according to Mohassel et al (2014) of Electrical Power and Energy Systems from so many surveys it was understood that advanced metering infrastructure has laid the foundation for the development of smart grids. In order to meet the current demands like production, transmission and power distribution, smart power grid has brought so many new challenges. Also, some other demands like delivering the power with a quality, concerns to the environment regarding centralized and conventional methods in generating power, maintaining consumer details in privacy manner, the safety of systems in opposing to cyber-attacks many countries have switched over to power grid utilization using this advanced metering infrastructure.
The objectives of this research will be as the following
What is the technology used in smart grid and what are the other possible future technology may be used?
Precipitating cause or consequence of AMI
Advantages of implementing smart grid in the UAE
In 21st century new technologies have been developed to serve people and make their life easier. One of the developed creations is Advanced Metering Infrastructure. According to the department of energy in U.S the AMI is defined as the system which consists of: smart meters, communication network, and data management systems. This system enables two-way interaction between both customer and the utilities (U.S Department of Energy, 2016).
In the United States of America the first federal policy about smart metering was introduced in 2005 ("NETL Modern Grid Strategy Powering our 21st-Century Economy", 2009) and there were other countries in the group like Poland, Denmark, France, Austria, Romania and UK. The policies stated ‘Requirement on states and non-regulated utilities to investigate and consider providing Time-Based Rates and Advanced Metering to all consumers'. These policies were implemented to assure the services provided by smart metering will provide the best services to the consumers.
Ever since the 2000's studies have been conducted about metering in general and specifically on systems. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) in 2009 provided the Department of Energy in United States 3.4 billion dollars to be invested in a variety of projects which includes smart girds (U.S Department of Energy, 2016). In 2014, there were 16.3 million smart meters installed in houses as a result of the ARRA investment.
Furthermore, according to the New Zeeland's Electricity Authority in Australia there is large number of smart meters installed in residential homes which is approximately around 70% in Australia and New Zeeland ("NZ - An Update on Smart Meters | Smart Power", 2019). In New Zeeland in 2004 the first remote meterings were installed ("NZ - An Update on Smart Meters | Smart Power", 2019).
Moreover, according to Omahen, Souvent & Luskovec the AMI has a very important cost benefit. The main benefit of implementing AMI that it will result into lower reading costs (Omahen, Souvent & Luskovec, 2009). Also, the AMI help the customer to control the electricity usage by minimizing the usage of electricity during peak hours.
Another main benefit of the AMI system is increase of accuracy of readings by providing charts with the details of usages across time which leads into better system performance and customer satisfactory. Along with that, the smart meters have a higher security system that prevents stealing from others electric cables and enables the user to acknowledge the security issue associated with data or theft in cables. Countries like South Africa and Nigeria are working on implementing the smart system to avoid thefts (Bimenyimana, 2018).
The available researches are conducted worldwide and based on these researches the advanced metering structure have been implemented in some countries. We will discuss some of the findings of the researches and consider the benefits of implementing the AMI system in the United Arab Emirates. We will also describe the AMI system briefly and how it works.
There are lots of issues regarding the current metering systems used in the United Arab Emirates such as; inaccurate readings and human errors while collecting data Also, collecting data requires labors. Furthermore, errors with the gauges in the metering. Additionally, the billing cycle is another issue since the customer cannot access the usage of electricity and water during the month.
During this research we will focus on collecting qualitative data from previous researches done in this field since the outcome of this research has a clear scope. We shall limit the period of this research to 1 year so that it is possible to collect as much accurate data as possible. Our target in this research is to be able to provide a full study about the Advanced Metering Infrastructure. This includes the main advantages of Advanced Metering Infrastructure and the outcomes of the system that will benefit the United Arab Emirates if implemented. Furthermore, we will consider the countries which implemented AMI systems and the benefits they have found and how can we relate these benefits to the United Arab Emirates.
Independent market scenario, offering suitable mechanism with which customer can review their real-time consumption off products or services; is an effective way to achieve competitive advantage. An advanced metering infrastructure is one of such tools that offer the customers is a smart meter to follow their consumption. The metering infrastructure is integrated with communication network and data management system that enables a kind of two-way communication, between the consumers and corresponding utilities (Xu, Chiang, Liu & Tan, 2017).
In the past, this is considered as a problem where reviewing of consumption is a manual procedure. For example, electricity usage, connectivity of services, monitoring voltage consumption were beyond the control of consumers. The existing problems can be described as absence of quantitative measurement, lack of control, and calibration. As a result of which, there exists no system to send or receive information that can offer the ability to the customers for upgrading or using the firmware in conjunction with their consumption. For example, when the primary source of energy is getting low, the system is unable to maintain the functionality, which is more concern to the customers. In other words, this can also be referred to as a system lacking an efficient power management system and lacking synchronization for reliable transmission of data.
However, the recent technological advances have enabled programmable thermostats, inhome display, and communicating devices that help consumers to monitoring the usage of the real time. In addition, the customers were encouraged to manage the consumption rate, reduce the peak demand, as well as reviews the overhead expenses which is cost associated with consumption. Thus, customers are able to control demand management and did exist a time synchronization true wireless communication between data analysis and billing. Hence, advanced metering infrastructure enables more control for the customers, therefore this will turn the customer to be satisfy obtaining satisfaction.
In UAE, the intelligent metering system has been implanted by Al Mostajed Technologies, in association for Dubai Electricity and Water Authority (DEWA). The system periodically reads the water and electricity meters of consumers in emirate and integrate the data with DEWA. Although the implementation is in pilot phase, however, it helps in supporting the foundation of future smart grid.Correspondingly, the consumers can get the information of usage in their billing document. As a result, this trend setting project not only brings transparency for usage and billing, but is also offers the customers to control the consumption on their part. Moreover, this enhances the customer relationship management and offers outage support to management. With the success of this pilot project, as reported by AlFaris, Juaidi & Manzano-Agugliaro (2017), Al Mostajed Technologies is also planning to integrate With Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCDA), Digital Media Services (DMS), and Geographic Information System (GIS), to expand the future smart grid provision in UAE.
The advanced metering system helps in framing a smart electricity meter, which brinks effective control for the customers, against their consumption. This can be summarized with the aforementioned features, which are responsible for customer satisfaction. It brings a time-based pricing mechanism, and the customers are required to pay only for their usage. The net metering system is based on time synchronization procedure, where the reliable transmission of data for analysis and billing are is incurred. In simpler terms, this provides consumption data for consumers in relation to their routine utility. Also, it has the feature of providing notification failure or outrage (Le, Chin, Truong & Nguyen, 2016).
Customer satisfaction is also viable because the communication with other intelligent devices has increased due to synchronization procedure. As a result, remote control operation such as turning on and off it's possible. The customers can limit the load of power consumption for demand and response related purposes. According to the report of Ganguly et al. (2016), the major factor responsible for bringing customer satisfaction weighted the implementation of the advanced metering system is that they can monitor the power quality. This mainly includes reviewing and monitoring of variables such as voltage, current, and phase. Furthermore, the active and reactive power, as well as related power factors, can also be controlled by customers (Ganguly, Poddar, Dutta & Nasipuri, 2016).
Customers have found that smart metering system is all set to mitigate energy and costs while controlling the usage of resources that are exhaustible. Instead of having a confused picture on the bills, this metering infrastructure can certainly make life easy and offer a quicker method of control.
When implementing a new project, it is very important to consider the cost. There are several cost benefits of installing the advanced metering infrastructure. Some cost benefits the customers while the other cost are beneficial for the utilities.
Previously, it is not possible for the customer to read the meter usage along with the cost of consumption at any time. The customer should wait for the metering reader to produce reports on the usage every cycle.
However, when installing advanced metering infrastructure, the customer has access to the amount of electricity used and the cost. Therefore, the customer can control the usage of electricity during peak hours which will result into reducing the end of month bills. This process is part of the demand site management where both the utilities and customer benefits from the AMI (Omahen, Souvent & Luskovec, 2009). The demand site management is controlling the demand of consumers through a variety of methods such as controlling the behavior of consumers during peak hours. According to Omahen, Souvent and Luskovec, if the demand is lowered during the peak hours this leads to 5 % savings yearly and it is evaluated at 200 € per kW per year.
Furthermore, the bills are generated more accurately in the AMI system because they don't depend on estimation (Bimenyimana, S, 2018). In fact, the AMI system provides real-time data of meter measurements to calculate power utilization by consumer (Rohokale & Prasad, 2016). The real-time data is data received immediately after collection with no delays ("Real-time data", 2019).
In Solovina it was found that 2% of the household consumption are commercial losses (Omahen, Souvent & Luskovec, 2009). Commercial losses are losses from inaccurate meter readings and energy thefts. The AMI system helps identification of commercial losses and produces accurate assessments. The estimation shows that 50 % of commercial losses could be avoided when implementing AMI (Omahen, Souvent & Luskovec, 2009). Federal electricity and water authority (FEWA) has deployed smart water meter to over 300,000 customers and the meter primarily helps in improving accuracy and precise billing. The accurate reading of this meter is given below.
Source: Utilities Middle East
These advantages of the AMI could benefit the United Arab Emirates from various ways. Firstly, the consumers will have a new system which makes it easier to access the bills. Secondly, installing the AMI will help the country to achieve the vision of 2021 as per implementing smart services through the AMI. The vision of UAE 2021 states ‘the National Agenda highlights the importance of infrastructure and aims for the UAE to be among the best in the world in the quality of airports, ports, road infrastructure, and electricity. And leading telecommunications infrastructure will allow the UAE to become a forerunner in the provision of Smart services.' ("Vision 2021", 2019). Therefore, the new system of electricity will provide better quality of service since the system will generate more accurate bills.
Green House Gases
The ministry of energy announced in 2013 that the UAE released 199.65 million tons of carbon dioxide and other greenhouses (E Biteng, 2015). The results show that the Emirates has a high consumption of energy which increases per year as the population increases this led into releasing lots of harmful gases. Furthermore, there are lots of ongoing construction projects which leads into pollution.
The smart metering helps the environment in different ways from different aspects such as it controls the consumption of electricity and water therefore it reduces the demand for new power plants which produces greenhouse gases (Bimenyimana, S. (2018)). Moreover, as result the pollution is reduced and emission of GHG as well.
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