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 (1) Identify and discuss the ethical issues in this case using the four principles approach’ That is acting for the good of individuals and society (beneficence), refraining from harming others (non-maleficence), being fair (justice), and allowing others to make decisions and act according to their own wishes (autonomy). Give reasons for your answers.

 (2) What are the ethical principles raised in this case? Give reasons for your answers.

 (3) If you were to conduct a ‘vulnerability assessment’ on the mother and son featured in this case, what would your conclusions be? Outline the basis upon which you would make your assessment in terms of the ethical issues raised in this case.

 (4) Were the nurses ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ to assist with euthanising the patients? Give reasons for your answer.

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Answer 1:  

Four principles approach of ethics: as per the given case, the old man who returned to his village from the rehabilitation center, was unable to wear the pressure garments given to him. It is also mentioned that a health care team visited him after 4 weeks of his discharge from the rehab. In this case, I would like to point out that the health care team delayed in reaching out to the old man. The healthcare team came to visit the old man, almost after a month of his discharge from the rehabilitation centre. This gives an indication of the fact that the healthcare team, failed to perform their responsibility towards the old man. The old man had severe burns on his lower leg, which needed more care even after he was discharged from the rehabilitation (Rowan et al. 2015). Moreover, the pressure garments that was provided to him, was not of good quality; their elasticity had deteriorated, because the old man couldn’t wear his shoes. Due to the injury on his leg, the old man probably couldn’t wear his shoes, which ultimately caused his pressure garments to become loose. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the healthcare team, who should have visited the old man as soon as he was discharged. Moreover, they could have provided for some other alternative garment or medical assistance to cure the burnt area of the old man’s leg. By doing this the healthcare team could have maintained the ethical principles of benevolence and fairness. As per the 4 ethical healthcare principles of beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and autonomy, the healthcare team failed to deliver their duties by following these ethical codes of healthcare.  

Answer 2: 

In the given case, the young girl is in a dilemma. She is in a situation where she has to select from two options. Firstly, it’s her parents who don't want her to take the HPV vaccination, because they are very religious and narrow-minded (Viens, 2016). Moreover, they do not believe in vaccinations and therefore they refused to indulge in any conversation regarding vaccination. On the other hand, the 13-year-old girl is very health conscious and she wants to take the HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infections, which can cause cervical cancer.  In such a situation, I think the girl is unable to take a proper decision as to which side to select. She is in a dilemma, where she cannot decide whether to stick to the religious beliefs of her parents. As well as, give priority to her health and take the vaccination. In this case, the girl has to face parental pressure and her own choices towards a healthy life. 

Answer 3:  

Vulnerability assessment: vulnerable populations are the ones, which include sufferers, and victims are racial outnumbered groups, elder people, children, socio economically disadvantaged people and people who face challenges in their day-to-day lives (McKinney, 2016). In the given case, as per reports, in 2012 where an old woman aged 83 and her son aged 51 was dead and found after 10 days of their death in their home in Brisbane. As per the reports, the old woman suffered from dementia, which is an indication, that she must have needed extra care and support from her caregiver. However, I would like to assume that she did not have any caregiver apart from her son. However, the incident is shocking and unimaginable. I think these people were vulnerable, especially the old woman, because she must have needed extra support and care for herself. However, maybe she could not afford one for herself. Moreover, the report states that these people never really met with people from their neighborhood. In addition, they used to keep to themselves and lived a life of self-imposed solitude. This clearly states that these people kept themselves away from any community or gathering. This made them aloof from the neighborhood and all sorts of engagement from the outside world. In any community, people need to stay in coordination with each other and maintain harmonious relationships. But in this case the mother and son couldn’t make such relationships with the outside world. I think people become vulnerable due to their own actions, apart from exterior factors. In this case, the ethical behavior of the neighbors had a vital role to play. They could have visited their home and asked them about their whereabouts. However, they denied performing their duties as citizens of a nation because the mother son duo liked to stay away from socializing.  

Answer 4:   

As per the given case, which happened in 2005, after Hurricane Katrina, two nurses and a New Orleans physician were arrested and charged with murder in relation to the patient’s death. In this case, I would like to define the term ‘euthanasia’, which means according to a layman’s knowledge means mercy killing. However, there are two types of euthanasia: active and passive. Active euthanasia means when a person is killed by giving a high dose of painkillers. Passive euthanasia means a situation when someone lets a person die. As per enquiries progressed the four patients had been euthanized apparently to prevent their needless suffering. In this case, I think the nurses failed to perform their duties. The foremost duty of a nurse is to provide care, support and medical aid to the ailing patients (Coster, 2018, p. 76). In case of any natural or unnatural calamity, it is their sole responsibility to perform their task of support and care. But this particular case is an example of breach o f ethical principles of nursing. As per the reports, all the four people could have survived if proper medication was made available to them on time. As a matter of fact, the four men were in pain and had been given a high dose of painkiller, which resulted in their death. This is a case of active euthanasia, which was executed by the nurses (Emanuel, 2016, p. 79).  I think the actions of the nurses were wrong. They breached their ethical codes of nursing. As caregivers, it is the main duty of the nurses to provide care to those men. They could have arranged for some other medication or arranged for alternative solutions. 

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