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ISY1000 Professional and Ethical Practice Assignment - Australian Institute of Higher Education, Australia

Unit Learning Outcomes -

  • Describe and discuss the principles of ethical practice as they pertain to the information technology and business sectors.
  • Demonstrate comprehension of basic problem solving and decision- making skills.
  • Identify and discuss the regulatory obligations relating to an IT environment.

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Task - Respond to the case study - Ethical Decisions in Software Development: How safe are Self-Driving Cars.

Executive Summary

Self-driving cars are becoming a new trend for all the people to ensure safe driving in the traffic. But these are rise of many ethical issues related to the self driving car which is mainly the decision process of the artificial intelligence system present in the car. Self driving cars needs to make proper ethical judgments on their own to identify safety of the pedestrians who are crossing the road and walking in the footpath. Setting up a separate moral code is important o make ethical judgments when self driving car is on the road. The researcher to ensure safety of the society is providing recommendation.

Introduction

The inclusion of ethics in the information technology helps to fill up all the void of practical business information between the IT professionals and business managers. Every software developers must make ethical considerations, which include a proper collection of data, and balancing had been added in the functionality. Providing ethical decisions in the software development had substantially impacted all the end users, organization, and their environment. Ethics is the code of behavior, which is being defined by the group that helps to provide right guidelines for all the employees in the company. The norms could change over time to be met all the evolving needs of the group or society, enable them in an organized manner. In this assignment, the researcher will be going to discuss the ethical decisions in the software development to study how safe the self-driving carts are for all the consumers who are using self-driving cars.

Discussion

Development of self-driving cars

Development of the self-driving cars helps the passenger to travel without a driver because the drivers had to perform complex tasks every day. All the same, operations could be performed with the execution of the computer system (arxiv.org, 2019). The software programs present in the self-driving approaches are automotive software or self-adaptive software. Both of these software helps to create the best machine learning approaches that could be implemented inside the car for overcoming all the constraints of drivers that are present while driving a particular car.

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The self-driving car can detect all the dangerous and unexpected situations like threat or attack near the vehicle. All the threats could be correctly interpreted by the self-driving car than human beings successfully. As said by Reynolds (2019), depending on the sensors and technology used in the self-driving cars helps the car to gain quality of information to reduce the number of accidents. The sensors present in the self-driving cars are being used to detect all the objects that are around the vehicles and surrounding environments very easily.

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Self-Driving cars depend on different disciplines, like computer vision, parallel computing, and machine learning. All of these disciplines depend on various external services to identify the threats or attacks that are present on the road, which could not be detected by the drivers very easily. The main problem faced by the self-driving car is the proper decisions making when passenger crossing the road because aself driving car cannot detect a pedestrian crossing the road around the corner. As said by Howard & Dai (2014), the abstraction creates approximate representations of the real world situations and creating decisions for the imperfect world. The twofold problem had been introduced where more amount of information is available to provide better decisions for filtering and interpreting to gather all the data that useful for the decision making the process. Every engineer needs to decide what kind of data needs to be used for decision making and how trustworthy or reliable. The collected data are for balancing the different sources of information that had been collected for the implementations of the algorithm. As said by Urmson (2018), different types of sensors had their specified limitations and overcame the real combination of all the multiple sensors that need to be used properly.

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Ethical issues of Self-driving car

Majority of the third party companies utilizes software piracy to form a copyright infringement had involved making copyrights of software. Copyrights had enabled others to access the software successfully. Self-driving cars had faced a catastrophic setback in the present days that are creating unnecessary accidents on the roads. For example, " a driverless operated vehicle by Uber had struck and killed an individual in Arizona promoting the state had suspended the resting of the firm. It had been found that the self-driving car is losing their control of the brakes and heading straight to the footpath and injuring the pedestrian. As said by Hee Lee, Faundorfer & Pollefeys (2013), every citizen care about preserving lives as they value their culture and moral. With the help of the survey process, it is important for all the automobile companies to identify the factors that citizens think are important for all the autonomous cars for resolving the ethical tradeoffs that are created by the automobile organizations. As said by Narla (2013), the researcher is focused on the self-driving car angles and other fascinating questions for programming the machine properly to make all the tradeoffs by providing less number of accidents.

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Implementation of the proper decision-making process for the self-driving car is important because software o could not found themselves rounding corner could not identify the older person and baby crossing the road around the corner or walking in streets. As said by Yang & Coughlin (2014), the decision-making problems are a problem for self-driving cars as majority of the people are scared for getting accidents. Majority of the newspapers are giving headlines that self-driving cars must decide who should die and who should live. No automated cars instantly react to emergencies like real drivers. Introduction of the self-driving cars is real progress of the worlds, but many problems are arising in the autonomous cars and society are not satisfied with it. As said by Surden & Williams (2016), the main issues of ethics are to take important responsibility to identify what situation is wrong and what situation is right. It is important for the programmers to look after the problem more seriously because the technology has the potential to reduce the number of accidents if the autonomous cars had been programmed properly. Majority of the humans had never allowed the artificial intelligence to take proper decisions whether the person dies or lives. For this reason, ethics must not be removed or ignored while creating self-driving cars.

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Duties of the software developers in self-driving cars to make ethical decisions

The software developers need to create an online experimental platform that is designed to explore for all the moral dilemmas that had been faced by the self-driving cars. As said by Zakharenko (2016), the software developers need to create an in-car sensor tech for all the passengers who are immune to take important decisions. The vehicle could able to decide who has very fewer contributions to the respective society and ensure the safeties of human beings. However, the majority of road accidents occur by real-time drivers.

For this reason, the autonomous cars had been prepared to provide a great impact on all the safety status. As said by Boegli, J. (2015), all the roadmap documents need to be created to identify how self-driving technology has been included in the assessment for further future safeties. Instead of a gradation system, all the software developers need to ensure and introduce the self-driving programming based on the used cases like city driving, parking, traffic jams, highway driving, and interurban driving.

It is very important for the programmers to program all the automated cars for following the rules of the road whenever the driver activates the self-driving mode. As said by Chen & Huang (2017), removal of the burden and responsibility helps to create ethical decisions for all the engineers for all the coded behavior. Providing rapid rollout technology helps to ensure all the pedestrians and vehicles are coming in contact are less very often. All the self-driving car needs to follow all the rules is one of the rare problems. Providing grey space helps to provide real-world driver experience are being operated properly. As said by Häne, Sattler & Pollefeys (2015), other companies are permitting for testing all the self-driving vehicles for all the California roads had published every accident stats for over 30 accidents. Self-driving test cars had rear-ended for the entire strict adherence for all the rules to interpret all the grey space situation like a human to understand the real cause of the issues.

All the potential safety had benefitted the self-driving vehicles had caught up all the ethical decisions to choose between a small number of lives and providing autonomous vehicles to understand the potential of the new software system. As said by Wagner & Koopman (2015), every self-driving test cars need to be rear-ended for providing a very strict adherence for all the rules. All the rules had implemented and interpreted to understand the cause of the issues if the automated car could able to decide the best course of actions that creates potential life injuries and psychological trauma that had been cased through various car decisions. The entire psychological trauma that is being caused by the car's decisions affects both the pedestrians and passengers that are being magnified through the fact where the machine had chosen to mitigate all the impacts like mental, physical and literal than a human being. As said by Schellekens (2015), the main responsibility and roles for all the ethical issues surrounding all the autonomy are still under development and providing solutions to make public. The country government must publish important guidelines to provide ethics for the development of self-driving cars. All the decisions need to be made all autonomous car to create all the new rules for the road. Every rule have the potential to deliver the significant societal changes that had been catalyzed by every self-driving cars.

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Both the employees and the IT workers have multifaceted relationships that are important for the organizations to make important efforts to keep all the ethical decisions intact for the safety of the consumers. As said by Alheeti, Gruebler & McDonald-Maier (2015), both the employer and IT worker must agree with all the fundamental aspects for creating the relationship before any worker accepts the project proposals. The presence of trade secrecy is one of the major areas that present all the challenges related to IT workers and their employers. As said by Shladaver (2016), the majority of the self-driving vehicles are participating the public traffic and will focus more on the awareness of the public. The coverage of the media helps to contribute to every discussion that had been unfolded about the self-driving vehicles. Implementation of the proper software is one of the key roles for all the self-driving vehicles and modern vehicles.

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Conclusion

From the overall analysis of the assignment, it could be found out for implementing the right ethical decisions in the self-driving carts are providing safety, security, privacy, trust, reliability, responsibility, and transparency. It is important to identify the trade of between the economic and safety aspects of making the self-driving cars successful in society. Majority of the passengers or people complains that the self driver decision-making process is not at all improved and creates safety for the pedestrians who are crossing the roads. Creating boundaries for the autonomous car or self-driving car will improve the control in the decision making process of the artificial intelligence system that had been fitted inside the car.

Recommendations

Every autonomous car creators need to identify and declare the minimal securities requirements for the vehicle because it will help to give a minimum threshold for the deployment of the self-driving cars in the market. It is an important to store and used all the received data to provide a more secure ride or travel through the self-driving cars. As said by Maqueda et al. (2018), it is important to provide proper technical solutions to guarantee minimum securities are being provided under the given circumstances. Transparency of the self-driving cars is very important to ensure all the decisions making process is being improved properly by the software developers with the help of their artificial intelligence system successfully. All the ethical deliberations need to be included during the process of decision making to develop the best self-driving cars under proper ethical norms. Protection of society is important. The self-driving cars need to make ethics are decisions for providing justified decisions when pedestrians are crossing the roads. The software developers need to identify all the issues that are faced by the people and driver in the traffic before implementing the artificial intelligence system to create the best self-driving cars that provide ethical decisions.

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