Health Promotion Questions -
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Question 1 - What is involved in translating community development principles into health promotion practice?
Answer - Community development is known as a concept that has a greater plea regarding the heath policies of the various countries. This concept is known to be allied with various social programs like the economic and cultural development programs. The community has been successfully engaged by various groups of people to define an identity as part of their labors to make public their claims regarding oppression or exploitation. The fundaments and the principle of community development include empowerment, planning and preparation, inclusion and diversity, and character and appearance (Wold and Mittelmark, 2018). A key principle of community development is known to be as empowerment which often directs to the things to get them done in the first place. There needs to be a motive for people for wanting to improve things in the community for themselves and also for others who are living with them. It cannot be government's sole work, the community has to come together to achieve the goals. Empowerment is said as a powerful motivator because there is always a personal source involved. The newer representation of empowerment enlightens us and says that it is not a feeling that causes people to take action but rather their surroundings influence them to work and take action accordingly.
As community development is a procedure that can get complex based on various situations, planning and preparation are said to be the key principles that are necessary for its proper and efficient working. The prime motivators of community development need to be able to take a look at what they want to do and how they want to do the work of community development (Oetzel et al., 2018). It is not an easy job to ratify the widespread changes, so careful consideration and preparation are required to make sure that all requirements are being addressed and that there are rightful reasons behind the actions that are being taken. The process of community development is said to be as a lengthy process, and there is often a bit of work that requires to be done in order to achieve the common goal.
The collaboration within the communities helps in bringing together peoples of different backgrounds who may have access to different resources that can be beneficial to the community. In this case each individual also plays a vital role within the community. Thus it is probable that if the individuals will have a role to play in the procedure of community development (Wold and Mittelmark, 2018). The interactions that occur through the collaborative efforts of community development can help boost leaders and their skills, which they are using to guide the community through the process of community development. The Awareness as a principle in the community development process can do more than just detecting problems. Also, it can also monitor the progress of the process of community development and the improvements that are taken into account for the process. As it is known that without paying attention to the problems will not help in solving it. So, awareness is also a key principle in community development, which allows in the identification of various resources and needs of the community.
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Question 2 - Discuss the implications of the four commitments outlined in the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion (WHO, 2005) for the development of health promotion in Ireland. (Prof. M. Barry)
Answer - The Ottawa Charter of 1986, a result of WHO worldwide wellbeing advancement gathering was one of the most significant achievements in the development of wellbeing promotion. It set up the standards and systems of wellbeing advancement and has viably defined the wellbeing advancement from that point forward (Thompson, Watson and Tilford, 2018). The Charter is still exceedingly significant today. Since 1986 there have been four other worldwide wellbeing advancement meetings. These were held in Adelaide, Jakarta, Indonesia and Mexico City. Every one of these gatherings created an announcement or statement, yet not a single one of these meetings had a similar emotional capacity and effect according to the "Ottawa Charter".
The Sixth "WHO Global Health Promotion Conference" held in 2005 from August 7th to 11th embraced the "Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion in a Globalized World". At the present day since the time of "Ottawa Charter", the entire world has been an appropriate place, both from political and monetarily aspects. The Bangkok Charter was the result of a mind boggling procedure of meeting and talk, coming full circle within its modifications and ultimate support at the "Sixth Global Conference" (Thompson, Watson and Tilford, 2018). The territorial offices of "WHO" as well as the "International Union of Health Education and Promotion" arranged meetings on before draft forms of the charter preceding the "Bangkok gathering".
Along these lines, there were four commitments that were outlined in the "Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion". The commitments were:
I. To make the advancement of wellbeing programs that are integral to the worldwide improvement plan
II. To make it a center obligation with respect to all the governing councils
III. To make it a key focal point of communities as well as the widespread society
IV. To build the advancement of wellbeing a prerequisite for superior commercial practices
"The Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion" is not planned in order to supplant the "Ottawa Charter", yet rather to supplement and expand upon it as well as the proposals of the consequent worldwide wellbeing advancement gatherings. It is proposed as a structure as opposed to a point-by-point activity plan, and does not try to cover all parts of wellbeing advancement (Bell and Williams, 2016). Before specification of the major areas of action, it momentarily summarizes the global circumstance for health and wellbeing promotion. According to the "Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion", all the health and wellbeing centers should act to:
I. Support for wellbeing dependent on human rights and solidarity along with putting resources into manageable strategies, activities and foundation to address the determinants of wellbeing.
II. Assemble limit with regards to approach advancement, administration, wellbeing advancement practice, information exchange and research, and wellbeing education.
III. Manage and endorse to guarantee an abnormal state of insurance from mischief and empower equivalent to an open door for wellbeing prosperity for all individuals.
IV. Confederate and assemble collaboration with open, private, non-legislative associations and common society in making feasible activities.
Tending to the majority of the "Millennium Development Goals" can be recognized as a basic passage approach for wellbeing promotion. There were eight "Millennium Development Goals" that were declared in 2000 as an objective that every "United Nation organizations" (counting "WHO") and part states (counting "Australia") should be addressed, with the expectation of achieving these objectives by the end of 2015.
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Question 3 - "Community development can be considered both a method and a philosophy for health promotion" (Hargreaves & Twine, 2006). Discuss.
Answer - Community is a kind of configuration consisting of the families, individuals and groups who are united by their interest, values, characteristics, geography and social relations. The word community is used to denote both the people living in an area, moreover the area itself. The community generally centers their focus on shared geography in other words; community can also be defined in short as the group of peoples living in a place or an area, for example a neighborhood. Consequently, a community based solution is the program, action, policy that determines by the community itself and affects local factors that can influence health and has the impending power to promote health. The health promotion is differentiated from the medical models of prevention and treatment (Baugh Littlejohns et al., 2019). Both health promotion and the medical models of prevention and treatment look upon at health from a negative point of view. The medical experts will have to step in to fix the problems regarding the health promotion. The health promotion can follow positive process to improve and sustain the health of an individual.
There are various communities who can establish policies that will foster the heath of the communities. As per a scholar these policies are actions of the communities that form the health, social and income policies that are involved in promoting the equity within the community. For example, proscriptions on smoking in unrestricted areas are to be viewed as healthy public policy (Baugh Littlejohns et al., 2019). The community environments range from the physical, social, economic to the political field. There are various supportive environments that can be created by government and some by community itself. The various environments that come under creating supportive environment are the natural environment, the economic environment, the work environment and the social environment too.
The strengthening of the community actions can also help in developing and fostering health promotion. The first task to strengthening community action is by encouraging and promoting the actions and planning. The second way to strengthening community is by the help of the government, community leaders and by various other decision makers. And the third way is by media and decision makers that ensure free flowing of necessary information in the community. Another way of promoting health is that the healthy communities must aid their people in gaining the necessary skills to address the issues of health and community, and can provide education and information at school, through media, at home, at work (Dickerson et al., 2018). The posters, TV, radio, newspaper articles, mailings, community meetings, presentations in clubs these all might assist the citizens understand the common issue and make decisions about the current issues. The reorientation of the services also helps in the process of health promotion. The services could helps to work together towards a common goal of a healthy community. There are various reasons that must be considered in planning a community action and those are community perspective, range of ideas, self-image of the community, identification of assets held by the community etc.
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Question 4 - What are the main elements of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control? Describe policy interventions that have been demonstrated to reduce tobacco use. (Dr. D. O'Donovan)
Answer - The "Framework Convention on Tobacco Controls" or "FCTC" is one of the very first treaties which are negotiated underneath World Health Organization. It was developed in 2003 with the purpose of responding to the globalization of tobacco outbreak, which is facilitated through various complicated factors with cross-country effect. This also includes trade liberalization and direct investment from foreign (Hoffman and Tan, 2015). The WHO FCTC is a treaty based on evidence, reaffirming a shift in the development of a regulatory strategy to convey the addictive materials. It required the signatory parties to execute the comprehensive programs and strategies on tobacco control in the communal as well as regional along with national level.
The main elements of the "Framework Convention of Tobacco Control" can be categorized in three main divisions. The first one is the price and tax measure in decreasing the demand of tobacco products. This policy identifies the effectiveness and importance of price and tax measures in reducing consumption of tobacco by different segments of the global population, especially the persons from young generations (Piné-Abata et al., 2013). It speaks about the right of the parties that has signed the treaty to establish and implement tax policies in appropriate fields and price policies in tobacco, along with legitimate prohibition and restriction in sales to and by international travelers.
Non-price policies consist of the effect and necessity of various elements which are not directly related to the price and tax policies. The parties are supposed to adopt and apply the impactful legislative, administrative, executive and such other necessary elements to bring reduction in tobacco consumption. The signatory parties recognize that exposure to the smoke from tobacco is dangerous and may cause death, disease or disability and they need to implement the national law regarding effective measures for offering adequate protection from tobacco smoking in public transports and vehicles, workplace and other public areas. "Regulation of the contents of tobacco products" and "regulation of tobacco product disclosures" are another two important policies in FCTC. Labeling of tobacco product needs to be done with a package that requires 30%-50% area with clear health warnings (Piné-Abata et al., 2013). Educating and training the public about the effects of tobacco through communication and activities to spread awareness is another main element of the treaty. Advertisement, promotion and sponsorship on tobacco are required to be under restriction and limits by the national laws (Hoffman and Tan, 2015). Also, the parties have to develop an integrated guideline to effectively promote cessation in the usage of tobacco and treatment for people dependent on it.
FCTC also contains measures to reduce the supply of tobacco as its key elements or objectives which include illegal business of tobacco products, where signatory parties would eliminate smuggling, illicit manufacturing and forging and all other illegal trading on tobacco products. Effective step would be taken in banning the sale of tobacco to the minors (Piné-Abata et al., 2013). Parties should take measures on proper government level in prohibition of selling tobacco products to individuals under the age directed by conjugal or nationwide legal system. They also need to co-operate each other in supporting economically applicable alternative activities for tobacco cultivators, workers and individual sellers.
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Question 5 - Discuss strategies for sustaining health promotion interventions using a community development approach.
Answer - There has been expanding acknowledgment that social and environmental variables assume a basically imperative job in deciding wellbeing status and in causing wellbeing differences, which has underscored the job of community-wide intercessions (Golden et al., 2015). Instances of social and environmental changes are expanding access to recreational offices. Approaches, for instance, forbidding smoking in open spaces and giving "nutritious sustenance" for youngsters living in destitution, are frantically expected to build open doors for refreshing decisions and to encourage individual as well as social change (Anderson, Prohaska and Satariano, 2015).
Community wide intercessions, which center on developing a physical and social condition, are expected to build multiple opportunities for learning and rehearsing fortifying habits. Rather than instructive mediations coordinated to individuals or small groups of peoples, community wide methodologies center on vast populace sections inside the given community (Golden et al., 2015). By influencing a large number of groups, little changes can have exceptionally huge general medical advantages. For instance, decreasing the mean dimensions of serum induced cholesterol by just 2-3 mg/dl would convert into numerous dramatic impacts on cardiovascular infections and related cardiovascular illness.
In order to cater wellbeing practices through different social foundations, including endeavors coordinated to families, schools, medicinal services offices, media, enactment, financial motivators, and network associations, reliable messages can be conveyed and fortified to help increase the level of motivation by upgrading the health benefits (Bauman et al., 2016). Additionally, the capacity to follow up on that inspiration alongside social help to maintain changes once they are started can likewise be improved. It is transparent to the community that the health behaviors are discovered within the social context of the given community.
Thus, it becomes logical that in order to shape the learning characteristics of healthy behavior the community plays a very crucial role (Bauman et al., 2016). This technique of community intervention is primary termed as the "kitchen sink strategy". This technique includes at the same time endeavoring a wide range of interventions. The interventions by and large use the different social structures inside community oriented networks. The primary social structures that have been utilized for community interventions to date are schools, stores, eateries, work locales, holy places and synagogues, solidarity gatherings, and other network based associations just as media channels. It is vital to take note of an inside solitary structure where various systems might be utilized (Anderson, Prohaska and Satariano, 2015). The idea of multifaceted community wide interventions depends on an alternate conceptualization, which appears to be increasingly predictable with how practices are really learned.
Along these lines, it is also found in social settings that are impacted by various factors all the while. Assessments of community wide interventions have been obscure. Moreover, it can be termed that there have been some promising outcomes supporting the estimation of community wide wellbeing advancement and disease advancement mediations (Golden et al., 2015). Thus, a widespread community can help in building mindfulness and enthusiasm for different wellbeing themes while searching for endeavors to advance social change.
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