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Health policy and practices associated with Native American Indians

1. Describe the ethnic minority group selected. Describe the current health status of this group. How do race and ethnicity influence health for this group?

2. What are the health disparities that exist for this group? What are the nutritional challenges for this group?

3. Discuss the barriers to health for this group resulting from culture, socioeconomics, education, and sociopolitical factors.

4. What health promotion activities are often practiced by this group?  

5. Describe at least one approach using the three levels of health promotion prevention (primary, secondary, and tertiary) that is likely to be the most effective in a care plan given the unique needs of the minority group you have selected. Provide an explanation of why it might be the most effective choice.

6. What cultural beliefs or practices must be considered when creating a care plan? What cultural theory or model would be best to support culturally competent health promotion for this population? Why?

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Introduction

The health condition of a particular race is one of the most important factors to be taken into consideration. The majority of the cases it is necessary to look the matters that are associated with proper situation management. The analysis is going to provide important information that is going to be beneficial for further evaluation.

The ethnic minority group selected is the indigenous American people, who were native to America prior to Columbian finding of the place. Many parts of America are still populated by the descendants of these early natives, who had fair amount of knowledge of engineering, irrigation, medicine, astronomy, physics and agriculture and the Maya and are known in the world today as developers of the famous Maya and Inca civilisation.

Current Health Status of Native American Indians and influence of race and ethnicity on health

There is lower life expectancy and much lower health status that is enjoyed by this ethnic community in comparison to other Americans. The major disease that is plaguing this group are, diabetes, chronic liver failure, and cerebrum vascular disease along with cancer (Rhoades, 2019). There is also seen an instance of seeing that the mortality rate of the male is much lower than the females till the age bracket of 45 years. The death among the male is higher due to more risk-taking behaviour that is observed and it has led to many accidental causes of death.

Racial and ethnic minorities may have access to insurance in the United States, but this has been seen that ability to pay has not been the reason for this. The discriminatory attitude is the main cause of such health disparity because health care providing units often fail to consider them equal and hence there are differences in the quality of care and treatment received (Bulatao, Anderson & National Research Council (US) Panel on Race, 2019).

Health Disparities and nutritional challenges

According to governmental report and Control for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), since 1972, there have been multiple measures taken to fund health related activities and provide healthcare to the American Indian tribes and put them under insurance coverage, yet they continue to suffer from tendencies of inactivity that lead to obesity, depression and substance abuse. The rate of tuberculosis in 2012 was 6.3 in comparison to the meagre 0.8 among the white population in America (minorityhealth.hhs.gov, 2019).  There is another major disparity that have been observed among the male population is the death due to infection from injury.

Lack of access to healthy food choice is a major challenge for the poverty ridden Native American population. A carbohydrate rich diet has increased the prevalence of childhood obesity and it has led to massive problems for the upcoming generations. There is a tendency to consume wrong food and this is majorly due to lack of knowledge regarding food choices. There is also the tendency to reject help in the area of dietary influence. The remote regions that they dwell in without much transportation support they are often dependent on canned and bottled food choices that lead to the rising ailments because of the poor nutritional options available (Spanne, 2019).

Barriers to health from culture, socio-economic, education and socio-political perspective

The major problem associated with barriers to health of this group is that due to low rate of education in the population, there is no knowledge regarding the facilities that they have access to.  There are socio economic factors also associated with this group that is associated with low income leading to lack of transportation affordability and due to staying in remote locations these people tend to consume preserved and bottled food in abundance, leading to severe unhealthy health conditions because of lack of fresh ingredients in the diet. There is also language barrier that lead them to seek out traditional healthcare in place of modern facilities thus aggravating the problem further. The healthcare system also has the problem of being guilty of racism that discourages the Native Americans to seek out help from healthcare professionals (Feagin &Bennefield, 2014).

Health Promotional Activities

Health promotion activities practiced by the group are associated with urbanising many beliefs in the system and ensuring that these people do not suffer from lack of knowledge in modern healthcare practices. There is tendency to ensure that fresh produce is incorporated in their healthy dietary foodhabits. There is a tendency to consume wrong food and this is majorly due to lack of knowledge regarding food choices. There is also the tendency to reject help in the area of dietary influence. The remote regions that they dwell in without much transportation support they are often dependent on canned and bottled food choices that lead to the rising ailments because of the poor nutritional options available. There is a tendency of accidental deaths among the Native Americans; hence the health promotional activities are associated with ensuring that there is increase in safety precautions and vaccinations taken by them (www.healthaffairs.org2019).

Approaches to effective care plan formulation at primary, secondary and tertiary level

According to Renert, Russell-Mayhew & Arthur, 2013, the recruitment of ethnically diverse people can be a real help in the primary level and secondary strata to ensure that more ethnic communities access the healthcare provided by the government and do not feel discriminated against. At the tertiary level there can be implementation of the governmental policy of Affordable Care Act (ACA), when referral services have to be used by the ethnic group members. The Indian Health Care Improvement Act of 1976 have provided a comprehensive network hospitals with clinics access in remote locations as well. Through systematic IHS funding, it has been possible to build community driven mental health care units and substance abuse eradication units. There are health insurance measures that are also included in the various reforms set up for their benefit.

Factors to be considered to create care plan for the group

There are many tribes who are varied and there is tendency among them to feel a sense of anger and repression that they associate with the white population, it is important that healthcare policy be formulated with inclusion through accepting their cultural practices and ensuring that they are not opposed regarding their traditional healing practices. The role of spiritual, power in connecting them to their religious beliefs and ensure that their culture is never refuted. American Indian belief system believe in spiritual healing and nature therapy that all should be included in the practices of the health care model plan(Wellnesscourts.org. 2019).  A major cultural factor that needs to be incorporated is the concept of community wellbeing and not individualistic belief that is essential in the healthcare plan for these tribal groups. Cultural practices such as ceremonies and planetary influences are an integral part of their system and these should all be accepted by the authorities and incorporated in the health plan, traditional American Indian belief system is to be first understood and based on that health care policies are formulated for effectiveness.

Conclusion

From the above description it is evident that the issues associated with the health management can be solved and for this purpose they have to make a gradual development in the approach process. This is the most important thing to be taken into consideration.

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