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This assignment requires you to write essays in response to all of the following:

Part 1: In your own words, describe early milestones in information storage and retrieval, beginning with the Greek alphabet and proceeding to the advent of Ted Nelson's creation of the hypertext system.

Part 2: Explain Rawls' theory of justice, including basic concepts of his thought experiment, and in particular the idea of one's original position, the veil of ignorance, and the difference principle.

Part 3: Describe evidence that Internet addiction exists based on your personal experience followed by a summary of expert opinion offered in our text. In that context, discuss factors that contribute to Internet addiction.

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Early milestones in information storage and retrieval from the Greek alphabet to hypertext system.

The great volume of data made it quite difficult for the librarians, mathematicians, documentarists, etc. to handle it quite well. This thus led to the development of some milestones in the information storage and retrieval system. Furthermore, as new ideas generated and new facts developed, the task of organizing them became more complex and more difficult. Therefore, the emphasis has been placed on finding out new methods and new ways of indexing and codifying the data. All of these efforts led to the development of the information storage and retrieval system which is a systematic process of collecting and arranging the data in such a way that it displays the answer about a certain subject automatically. This not only resulted in the development of new analytical methods, but also of some electronic methods. These milestones seem to be more advanced than those that were used previously (Hunter, 2017).

The invention of the Greek alphabet, codex and paper, newspaper, and hypertext are some of the great examples. All of these are concerned with the method of expediting the process of information retrieval and data storage. It should be noted that around 750 BC, the Greeks developed the first alphabet that was representing the vowel sounds and the consonant sounds. This method seemed to be quite simple to the other writing systems that were developed in Mesopotamia and Egypt. This thus allowed the people to transform their words into a writing form and thus was marked as an important milestone in the information storage and retrieval system. Another significant advancement took place in information storage and technology system in the form of the codex, which was made up of some rectangular pages that were sewn together for storage. The evolution of the printing press after it also led to significant developments in the information storage and retrieval system. After that, in 1965, the need for automated coding and indexing system led to the development of the hypertext by Ted Nelson that linked a wide area of network nodes containing information together. Afterwards, it kept on progressing, and the GUI, the World Wide Web, and search engines are some of the great examples of the same.

Rawls' theory of justice and its basic concepts

As per Wolthuis (2017, John Rawls theory of justice discourses the problem of distributive justice as opposed to other theories of justice. His theories are mainly based on helping the whole criminal and justice system rather than the individuals alone in a liberal democracy. He described that justice should be the first and foremost virtue of the various social institutions. Therefore, Rawls' theory of justice proved to be quite beneficial to the whole society and particularly to the law enforcement personnel. He described two principles of justice and that is namely the principle of equal liberty and the difference principle. The principle of equal liberty implies that every person possesses an equal right for the most extensive liberties compatible with other similar liberties. Also, the difference principle states that social as well as economic inequalities should be arranged in such a way that they provide great benefits to the least advantaged members of the society.
Similarly, the veil of ignorance concept of Rawls is a method that describes the morality of issues. This method of Rawls allows a decision maker to choose between a moral and social issue after knowing about its consequences with the aid of enough information. Rawls always tried to justify democracy as the greatest good of the greatest number and has made significant efforts for the same. He has explained that if a person does not know about his place or position in the society, his strength as well as his intelligence, such a situation is known as the original position. As per Rawls, ignorance of all these details about oneself leads him towards the principle of fairness. This thus ultimately led the individuals towards the adoption of maximin strategy, which maximizes the prospects of all the least advantaged members of the society. Therefore, it can be established that Rawls theory of justice proved to be a miracle in the field of justice and equality (Follesdal, 2015).

Factors that contribute to internet addiction

Internet addiction contributes to that state of a person when he or she spends a great deal of time on the internet to such an extent that it hampers the work, health, and relationships of that person. The persons suffering from internet addiction becomes dependent on the internet and spends the majority of their time online. As per the American Psychiatric Association, if an individual wants to spend more time online and says that this gives him personal satisfaction, then he or she is internet addicted. Also, it has been noted by us that when these persons are not provided with the internet facility, then they show some unpleasant symptoms like anxiety, depressed mood etc. and the providence of the internet relieves these symptoms (Liu, et. al., 2017). Similarly, if a user keeps on spending the time on the internet rather on leisure activities or family outings, then also he is seemed to be internet addicted. It has been noted that sometimes users are ready to lose even their jobs or another important thing in life just because of internet addiction.

The high exposure to technology, use of various kinds of social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook etc. are some of the major factors that contribute to internet addiction. Also, the absence of emotional support also leads an individual to move towards the more usage of the internet. Another major factor that contributes to internet addiction has been the depression, stress, isolation, and anxiety feelings that force these individuals to move towards the internet to relieve their stress and isolation (Ryding & Kaye, 2018). Modelling is another major factor in internet addiction that plays a crucial role in the same. If an individual's peers are engaged in excessive internet use, the same behaviour starts to develop in that individual also. For example, playing online games such as PUBG, World of War craft etc. are some of the most common examples of internet addiction. However, this needs to be handled very carefully through the aid of meditation, control of feeling and thoughts, etc.

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