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BUS 2268 Organizational Behaviour - Lethbridge College

Topic: Decision-making

Thesis: Group decision-making is more productive than individual decision-making.

Solution:

Decision making refers to the instance where in a choice will be made from among the alternatives available in a given situation. More specifically among the alternatives available a right decision is expected to be selected based on the priorities and objectives of the organization (Tindale & winget, 2019). Efficiency of decision making does matter for the organization and a right decision will decide the destiny of the organizations. There are instances where is decisions miserably failed the companies and at the same time, right decisions in right time provided new life and enables a great future for the organizations as well. Wal-Mart and its decisions of business expansion in Germany detailed in the following discussion is a good example for that. In these circumstances, the following part of the research paper discusses the significance of decision making and the strength and synergies contained in group decision as well. Group decisions are mainly productive in the organizations than individual decisions.

It is due to the fact that the group decision will enable accumulation of the expertise and talents from multiple perspectives and more comprehensives outlook towards the chosen aspect of consideration can be made (Tindale & Kluwe, 2015). Considering this fact the following part of the discussion will focus on the aspects like how a group decision making can be productive than individual decision making. The discussion and argument in this regard is made based on few secondary resources available as well. The interpretation of decision making is done in the context of selected organizations and a detailed overview of what makes up the decision making process how it proceeds with? What types of leadership implications do exist in this context are discussed next? Further there will be discussion on other forms of organizational behaviour as well in the context of decision making. The key discussion of the article is focussed on the literature review, which emphasized what is found in the literature and what type of observations have really worked out to provide the necessary supporting arguments to succumb to group decisions in the organizations. A real time reflection is provided on the possibility of the decisions to go wrong in the context of Wal-Mart as an example and based on its global operations. Further evidential support is provided through the illustrations on the possible advantages of the group decisions for the organizations in different and diverse scenarios.

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Group Decision making and insights:
Group decision is a successful form of decision making and this is there in the historical timelines from very long period. For example right from the times of Greek Civilization, there is evidence for existence of Group decision. There is group decision on issues like the type of punishments to be offered to the culprit, the ways and means of developing the right decisions for national policies and so and so forth(Ershov and Ashmarov,2018) In all such instances there is much to do about the quality of outcomes and the relevance of the same with the knowledge of the individuals as well as on the efficiency of the process chosen for the decision making. Peng yang et al(2018) has done investigative study of the group levels factors and informed how they do have implications to the actual decision making process in the organizations on very key factors like bidding decisions in the organizations. There is particular focus made on the significance of the uncertainty and implications of the same in the actual decision making framework. Since bidding is highly uncertain and consists of high risk in construction industries, Peng yang emphasized the need to be highly knowledged of the consequences and also indicated how it can be of use for the organizations to take up collective decision making decisions. Group expertise can be of use, since accumulation of knowledge, expertise and analytical perspective from different channels can help on to make up the most effective decision for the organizations. Further in the context of group decisions, it is also discussed in the article about the impact of the individual, group and organizational factors and the impact of the same in the organizational decision making process. However in the same context the Peng et al (2018) indicated that the shared knowledge and information on the strategic goals of the organization, Collaboration and learning orientation in the organization, reaching for consensus of the organization, awareness of the risk, empowerment and development are some of the concerns that are of significance in making rightful decisions for the organizational concerns.

Tong and Seidman (2018) done investigative research into the efficiency and advantage of the group decisions over the individual decisions and critically analyzed the same to evaluate the efficiencies of the decision making frameworks. By thoroughly analyzing the chosen case of newsvendor scenario Tong and Seidman indicated that Group decision can be of some use in the scenarios of low profit conditions where in the benefits of the group decision can be of good use for the organization. It is emphasized that in such conditions, group decisions can provide productive inputs for the sake of organizational productivity. However it is rightly indicated that the group decisions may be not necessary in all the circumstances and they might be not effective like in individual decisions in all instances (Tong and Seiman, 2018). Also in the situations where-in there is need for swift decisions, Group decision may be not a viable solution and there is need for selection of an alternative decision (Tong and Seiman, 2018), as it will take up more times than other types. Belinda Xie et al indicated that the groups can outperform individuals effectively in the circumstances where in there is much to do with the quality of the outcomes and the efficiency of the decisions is concerned. Specifically in the instances where there is need for consideration to a range of complexities where the typical understanding and cognitive limitations of the individuals will restrict the thinking capacities, there is need for going for group decisions. Belinda Xie, cited the example of the climate change and related decision making process and emphasized how the particular type of group decision can outperform the cognitically limited individual style of decision making process.

The limitations of individual performances in the statistically demanding scenarios like in the case of the climate stabilization models, the efficiency and capacity of the decision making by groups is significantly emphasized and the advantage of employing multiplying cognitive capacities is discussed there in. Tindale and Kameda (2017) evaluated the situation of group decision from adaptive and evolutionary perspective and identified the factors that decide the future directions of group decision making process. Decision making in groups has undergone to be adaptive to take up consensus decisions rather than just ruled by social choices. Also a typical collaborative approach employed in group decision has evolved after identification of the fact that rather than verdict based approach, evidence based approach is much collaborative and efficient too (Tindale and kameda, 2017). Also, it is indicated that the macro processes and consequences of socially shared preferences and consensus are more productive. Cognitive centrality and shared task representations make up important elements of Group decision making process.

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Wal-mart and Group decision making
Decision making and its rational can be understood better, by having a look of Wal-Mart failure in decision making process. There are several instances of Wal-mart going wrong in decisions, which are later considered for rectification using Group decision making process. Wal-Mart has totally working on to rely on groups decisions for its organizational operational decision making process on day to day framework. Wal-Mart has adopted the group decision making based on the belief that the decision making based group level expertise and information sharing can be of more productive inputs for the organizations. In the regard, at the outset, when the Wal-Mart decision making process has failed due to inefficiencies of individual decision making procedures. There is failure of Wal-Mart decision making process, like it has failed in the Germany (Kaelberer, 2017) since there are no productive inputs received for the organization from the local markets, there are instances in Mexico, where the US styled parking lots are installed by Wal-Mart which became detrimental for the users as they are mostly not equipped with cars and bus stops are at far. Walmart failed in taking a right decision while allocating its outsourcing to Bangladesh organization. There is proof of employing child labour in Bangladesh. In Brazil, the company has not designed its Isles for coping with huge rush of the paying day. In Argentina the banners of Wal-Mart offended the local sentiments and tastes.

Wal-Mart's razor blade suicide scar selling is also sick and depicts the lack of appropriate capabilities of the company in taking up the right decision(Hunt,2018). Wal-Mart adapted to more solid and systematic thinking policies after realizing the failure of its decision making systems. The key drivers of this changed paradigm included, illusion of invulnerability, Morality, self censorship, unanimity, pressure on dissidents, self appointed mind guards in group decision making process. Kumar et al (2016) have provided with some insights of the efficiency of the fuzzy logic based group thinking and decision efficiency in Wal-Mart organization. Wal-Mart has taken up the initiatives of strategic importance in group decision framework and has utilized even the modern technology frameworks and platforms to get the most useful outcomes for the organization. Information sharing from vendors and supplier network, integrating the fuzzy systems from diverse stakeholders for integrating decision silos etc reflect the attempts to take up the advantage from multiple expertises. Group decision making can play a significant role in making up radical changes in the organization's operational domains. Typically they may work for taking up decisions for minor operational changes to significant changes like thost that can happen at strategic levels. Group decisions infact can help to improve the overall effectiveness of the decisions by working out to evaluate the scenario and issues from multiple aspects and facilitates the most efficient decision.

Renovation in strategic decision through enabling collaboration is also a direct implication of recognizing the group decision making effectiveness in the organizations.

Group Decision and Leadership
Group decisions and its productivity can be seen from efficient execution of the same in the organization by changing the effectiveness of individual decisions by enabling decisions in systematically organized phases. Leadership has a key role to play in enabling effective decisions in the organization. According to Bruce Tuckman(1965), Group decision can be better accomplished by following systematic phases. They are of about four stages and they do have forming, storming, norming and performing. These are the four stages where in the Bruce Truckman indicated that the group decision making can be of use for the organization. This is an ideal group decision making model suggested for organizational effective decision and it is also possible to include Adjourning process where in the group patterns are different and there is need for an effective group decision where in coherence does not exist and norming do not occur. Most of the organizations at present include Group decision making for taking up effective decisions in the organization(Tindale & Winget,2019), however the key lies in the fact to recognize what makes up the organizational group decision and understanding that effectiveness will be based on shared vision and shared cognitive centrality. Also the prevailing environmental conditions and group synergies will decide the outcomes of the decision (Kreher, 2017). Though group decision involves collective faculty of expertise, an able leader can only facilitate this across the organization.

Conclusion
Group decision making is has much scope to guide the decisions in the organizations to be more informative and beyond the routine cognitive limitations of the individuals. Group thinking will let the organizations to take up decisions even in the most challenging and tough scenarios. However it cannot be generalized that not all the situations needs group decisions always. Like in the case of simple organizational cases needing swift decisions, group decision making may be not a right choice. Further if there is any group dissidence exists and if there are gaps in sharing the common objectives, priorities and focus, there can be delay in decision as well there may be no proper decision making. The key lies in Group Adjouring as per Bruce Tuckman, Normalizing the group can yield better outcomes in all the scenarios where there is considerable dissidence exist. Wal-Mart like organizations succumbed to the group decision making after finding that the decision making in their in-house set up is not effective as well there is lack of comprehensive informative evaluation of the situations. In all these instances, Group decision making will work out as an effective solution for decision making requirements. In any case, the leadership and the moderating impact of the same in formulating the process and mobilizing the resources, providing inputs to the system, working out the outcomes and implementing the yielded outcomes in the organization will provide good framework for decision making process. So the conception that Group decision can be more productive than individual decision making is evidentially valid and however the limitations and moderating factors of leadership and organization need to be considered for.

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