X-Ray Crystallography - Chemistry Assignment Help

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X- ray crystallography

Basic concepts of X- ray crystallography

X- ray crystallography is the science of studying and determining the arrangement of atoms in three dimensional spaces of all the crystalline solids. The inter- atomic spaces in between the atoms of crystalline solids are used to diffract the x- ray light. The study involves the understanding of the arrangement of atoms in a specific order to diffract the x- ray beams through them. The diffraction pattern is studied via series of mathematical concepts to understand the structure of the crystal. The basic characteristics of structure and bonding of organo- metallic compounds are studied via this field. The course gives the in depth knowledge of the application of x- rays in solving the problems related to crystallography of single and poly- crystalline substances. The approach of the technique is intertwined with various other disciplines like physics, biology, mathematics, geology, computer science and chemistry.

The course touches various areas of chemistry and physics in detail which are explained below:

a)  Geometry of crystals: This deals with the study of the arrangement of atoms, molecules and ions in any crystallised material. The theory and application of various techniques are understood in this area.

b)  Reciprocal lattice: This area deals with the study of Bravais lattice which is three dimensional and explains fourteen different ways of accomplishing it.

c)  Stereographic projection: It deals with the understanding of the sphere over the plane type of mapping in the crystals. This also involves the application of mathematical concepts too.

d) Crystallographic point groups and space groups: It deals with various symmetry operations in the form of Herman- Manuguin notation to enhance the understanding.

e)  Basics of X- rays: The properties and functions of wavelength and the pattern of diffraction are all the topics of this area. This will also include the X- ray diffraction and detection methods.

f)  Diffract meter measurements: This area will deal with the theory and the practical understanding of the different ways of diffraction and the intensity by which it is happening in every crystal.

g) Determination of crystal structure: This area is vast and will deal with many other areas giving different methodologies. For e.g. precise lattice and phase diagram determination, qualitative and quantitative phase analysis and chemical analysis by x- ray fluorescence and absorption. It will also make the concepts of using the knowledge of X- rays in various ways for determination of particle size, texture, single crystal orientation and stress analysis clearly with the practical hands on experience approach.

Apart from this the practical skills are enhanced via the experiments to solve the crystallographic problems using the elaborative data of every experiment in any research area.

Importance of the study of X- ray crystallography

The biological phenomena uses the in depth knowledge of various tools of macromolecular crystallography. X- ray crystallography as a subject has already established itself in the world of medicine and pharmaceuticals. The practical and theoretical knowledge of the subject provides a diverse array in modern drug discoveries and its analysis before testing on living beings. The theoretical knowledge creates the base or the foundation in the mind of student and the practical utility of the content develops the skills like observational, analytical and computational. The huge applications are seen towards the deadly diseases like HIV and arthritis recently. The technique of x- ray crystallography has enabled the scientists to know about the structure and life cycle of the deadly virus HIV. With this information the research on the treatment strategies has been possible. Also the problematic bone disorder, Arthritis has found its cure due to application of X- ray crystallography. The study of various substances at molecular level has caused the discovery of drugs for osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis without any ulcer causing or any other kind of side effects. The analysis of various kinds of protein structures is also possible because of the study of this subject. As a crystallographer you can research and study on various living cells, proteins, super- conductors and ceramics. The investigation of various materials like amorphous thin films, quasi crystals, fibres, liquids etc. are all possible with the study of X- ray crystallography. There is an immense scope of this subject in research and development sector in many of the pharmaceutical companies and institutes where various projects are going on for the discovery of many drugs and other materials for mankind. The government and many other agencies also keep funding the projects which are formulated by the scholars for the development of human health and society. Apart from this you can also pick up the academic profession to impart the knowledge of the subject to other students at every level.

Tips to solve the problems/ questions faced during the course of X- ray crystallography

Create a summary list or mind map of every chemical and physical change or process which occurs in the formation of crystals to formulate a base in the subject. When solving a practical or experimental based problem, always mention the principle behind the procedure used. Also analyse the data only after accumulating it in an ordered way. The step by step methodology will never let you go wrong in case of any kind of evaluating problem. Make sure you have brushed up the basics of physics which deals with the intensity or the wavelength factors of x- rays and mathematics dealing with aspects of geometry. This will enhance your conceptual learning and the application of the same in any kind of questions. This way you will never have to practise the rote method of learning.  Always try answering in bullet points as it is very easy to revise and see if any pointer is missing in your answer or not. For every methodology create your own diagrams for enhancing the written matter. This not only saves the time to answer but also make the application of the point very clear. These all methods will lead you to solve any kind of problem in x- ray crystallography with highest precision and accuracy. 

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