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Basic concepts of synthetic organic chemistry

  

Although, earlier all the products which were used in daily life were obtained solely from the natural sources, now a days  the synthetic sources have overpowered the natural sources partly because of the fact that the natural products could not satisfy the demands and partly because corresponding synthetic products  can be manufactured in bulk with cost effectiveness .The word synthetic means duplication of the natural products by means of artificial methods. The human beings get all their requirements from two sources ,natural and synthetic ; the synthetic products that does not resemble although in structure ,yet have the same applications as the corresponding natural products therefore  these products are also called synthetic substitutes.

Synthetic chemicals always contain carbon element. Because all the synthetic compounds are organic compounds.

A chemists named Friedrich Wohler, discovered the first synthetic organic compound that was urea,

Earlier known to be created only in human body by kidneys.

Prior to this, it was widely believed that there are two separate categories of molecules one from living beings, the organic compounds and molecules from nonliving sources, the inorganic compounds.

The essential purpose of synthetic organic chemistry is the ability to take a nonliving source and make it useful for a living one, because of this basic fact synthetic organic chemistry field has made many amazing discoveries.

Starting from the simple molecule of glucose, (the ultimate constituent of all the types of foods,) up to the complex and the fundamental constituent of all living cells, the nucleic acids, have been synthesized.

The synthetic organic chemistry has improved almost every aspect of life .The synthetic food provides those necessary ingredients which are generally destroyed in the natural floods and natural calamities. Moreover, fertilizers and pesticides have helped us a lot in increasing the yield of food materials, the natural fibers have been improved and even replaced by synthetic fibers, because these synthetic fibers have the most desirable characteristics and have easy maintenance .Synthetic drugs have extensively used in medical field .Synthetic perfumes rubbers, plastics and resins have made daily life easy and affordable.

Listing out of organic synthetic products is a difficult task, as the products are numerous in number.

Few of them-

1-Synthetic Dyes- Dyes are colored substances capable of imparting their colors, fast to light, water soap etc., to the fibers. The first synthetic dye was discovered by an Englishman W.H.Perkin .His discovery was, mauve, contained mainly N-phenylphenosafranine and its homologue.

Classification of Dyes-All the synthetic dyes have been classified in different ways e.g,according to the nature of fabrics to be dyed ,the intermediates from which they are prepared ,the methods of application ,and the composition and structure .

2-Synthetic polymers-A polymer may be defined as a high molecular weight compound formed by the combination of a large number of one or more types of small molecules of low molecular weight. The small unit or units of which the polymer is made is known as monomer or monomers. Many polymeric substances occur in nature such as cellulose, starch, rubber, proteins and resins. The synthetic polymers are manufactured generally from the small units by the process known as Polymerization.

3-Synthetic Detergents-A detergent is a chemical compound

capable of removing liquid and solid dirt from the surface of a solid .Synthetic detergents are predominantly based on petroleum ,various petroleum synthetic detergents are used in large quantities in laundries and in the cleaning of hospitals, offices and schools.

4-Synthetic Perfumes -A perfume can be defined as a mixture of pleasant smelling substances incorporated in a suitable solvent.

5-Explosive  -Explosives are those solids ,liquids or gaseous substances which, when subjected to a mechanical or thermal shock, decompose  rapidly and  simultaneously with the production  of a great amount of heat and large volume of gases,(many times to that of the volume of the original compound).An explosive may consists of a single substance such as trinitrotoluene ,or a mixture of two or more substances ,none of which is  itself need to be an explosive, gun powder (a mixture of Potassium nitrate, sulfur and charcoal)

6-Synthetic Drugs-The systematic research in Synthetic Drugs sector has led to the introduction of more and more new drugs in modern medical field. Compounds are synthesized whose structures are more or less similar to naturally occurring substances. Synthetic drugs are classified on the basis of 1-their chemical structure 2-their therapeutic actions.

Importance of synthetic organic chemistry

                   Development in the field of synthetic organic chemistry is taking a very fast pace. Organic compounds play an important role in our day to day life. Organic compounds have become an essential part of our daily life. The food we eat is essentially a mixture of organic compounds; all the metabolism reactions that take place in our body are basically biochemical reactions. In the medical field ,role of organic compounds is very important ,the list of organic compounds which are used regularly in hospitals and health care sector are sylph drugs,antibiotics,aspirin ,chloroform,alkaloids etc.Use of synthetic fibers has become extensive with its comfort and ease of maintenance .The soaps, oils ,perfumes ,rubber stuffs,paper,ceramic items all are organic compounds. There is hardly any industry which does not rely on organic compounds .If we try to list out the synthetic organic compounds which are used in our daily life-

1-Food-Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Carbohydrates, Enzymes etc.

2-Clothes-Silk, cotton, wool, nylon, rayon etc.

3-Fuels-Wood,coal,petrol,diesel,natural gas

4-Explosives-TNT,TNB,Nitroglycerine

5-Dyes-Indigo,Malachite Green,Alizarin etc

6-Medicines-All the medicines used in modern days like aspirin,digene,penicillin all are synthetic organic products.

7-Insecticides-DDT,malathion,monocrotophos

8-Household and other common articles-Cosmetics,soaps,perfumes, plastics,detergents,paper

Rubber,resins ,inks,paints,photographic materials etc

The list is very big and the products are numerous.

Looking at the list of synthetic products being used by us in our daily life which is endless, because of the use and need of these products, more and more, new discoveries are being done every day.

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