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HS1011 Communication & Networks Assignment - Holmes Institute, Australia

The purpose of this assignment is to exercise and develop skills required to analyse and design networks to address the need of clients. Students will be able to:

1. Discuss the need of electronic data communication and networking to achieve business goals.

2. Explain and apply various networking and data communication technologies in the context of a specific business need.

3. Evaluate and assess hardware and software requirements of a data communication and networking infrastructure.

4. Define, prioritise and evaluate the requirement of the business to provide data communication and networking requirements.

5. Understand, evaluate and describe importance of network and data communication for a business operation and assess and suggest troubleshooting suggestions for a data communication and networking problem.

6. Communicate using an effective oral and written communication, act in a professional conduct, be an effective team member or team leader and be creative and innovative.

7. Understand the ICT profession and professional expectations in data communication and networking.

In this assignment, you are required to identify the resources needed to design and setup a network infrastructure for the new campus for Holmes Institute in Melbourne. You also deal with problem solving which includes the identification and determining the specification of the problem, strategies for its solution. You have to critically evaluate the solution provided through the reflective report writing. Then present and justify an appropriate networking solution to meet specified requirements.

Requirements - Assume that the network described Assignment 1 is expanded to include two new schools and an IT centre. A new IT centre has just opened up. It aims to provide student labs, provide computers for its education and administrative staff and set up a web server. Holmes has just purchased one Metro Ethernet connection from HLNET providing 10Mbps for upload and download. It has also purchased the 202.175.177.128/26 network from HLNET.

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Solution - Part 1: Introduction

Holmes Institute has planned to establish new campus in Melbourne. The new campus will have the following infrastructure such as the five lots, each lot has three storey shops. The campus has the following schools such as information systems, Cyber Security, Business and fashion. Each school has two divisions in the network such as staff and student. The campus has the following departments such as student service department, higher education department, exam and Accreditation department, Maintenance and logistics department, finance and HR department. The network is able to connect the entire campus to share the resources and data communication as well as to provide internet service. The campus is also extended to new schools as well as IT centre. The IT centre includes the facilities such as student lab. The lab includes web server offer services for students and administrative staff. The institute has Metro Ethernet connection of HLNET with the speed of 10Mbps for uploading and downloading. It has the IP address of 202.175.177.128/26.

Plan for IT centre

Web server

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure.jpg

Web Application is program operates on distributed computing basis such as the application is distributed among client and server. The task of the web application is distributed among the client and server system. Web applications are accessed through the web browsers. Web applications make use of various technologies to build the client -server setup[1]. To run the web applications parts of the technologies such as java script, Active server pages are run at server side. Parts of the technologies such as VB script, Hyper Test Mark-up Language are run at client side. The applications are the Graphical user interfaces (GUI) to interact with other people, organizations, e-commerce portals etc. Web applications are designed to able to run at client side browsers. Hyper Text Mark-up Language (HTML) is the back bone of web Applications. Web applications are interpreted through browsers and display the results. This type of operation is called as static applications. The applications are processed at server side is called as dynamic applications. The client and server are connected through 3-tier architecture. The below diagram illustrates the 3-tier architecture. Tier 1 includes the clients. The clients are connected with the application server through web browsers like Firefox, Google chrome and IE etc. The middle tier has Application server. The tier 3 is the data base server. The application server interacts database server to store, retrieve data from the data be server. An example illustrates how the web application works. The client places an order for book through the application. Client gives all the details relevant for book orders on the application. The browser forwards the information in the HTTP request to the Application server. The web server receives the request and forwards the request to the Application server. The application server processes the request and store the details regarding the book order info to the data base and send response back to the client. The response forwards to the client through the web server.

File server

In client/server environment the file server stores file and provides access to the host which resides on the same network. In Holmes institute has one file server to offer service to the students to access course materials. The file server uses File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to access the file services from the server to host[2].

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DNS name

The network connected globally with variety of transmission medium like wired and wireless to transmit data. The network uses TCP/IP suite for their transmission. The internet network includes different parts of people such as academic network, commercial network, public network and government network etc. The internet connects different devices such as hardware, software. In the large network each device is uniquely identified through IP address. It is otherwise called as Internet Protocol Address. There are currently two IP versions are exists such as IPv4 and IPv6. The IPv4 represents IP address with 32 bits. The IPv6 version represents IP address with 128 bits. Nowadays IPv4 version is used for communication. The below diagram indicates the sample IP address[3].

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure1.jpg

Parts of IP address

The IP address is divided into two parts such as Network address and Host address.

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure2.jpg

The figure displayed above explains the part of the IP address. Internet is the internet connection of differ networks. Each network has IP address or identity. While denoting the device connected with the internet through IP address, the device is identified with Network ID followed by Host ID. Network ID indicates in which Network the devices resides. Host ID indicates the device in that particular network.

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure3.jpg

The above diagram illustrate the working principle of internet

World Wide Web

World Wide Web (WWW) is the service from the internet. The service is used to connect devices on the internet. World Wide Web uses Hypertext to link resources on the internet or for navigation resources on the internet. The system is used to connect with the internet is called as GUI. GUI is called as Graphical user Interface. The users uses the interface or Applications those are having graphical properties are used to connect with the internet. The applications are running through the web browser. The web browser is called as thin clients. The web browser makes request for the service to the application server. The Application server is connected with the web server. The web server is the intermediate between client and the server. The client makes request to the application server to processes the request. The request is transmitted from web browser to the web server. The web server forwards the request to the application servers. The response is received from the application server is again transferred to the client through the web server. Different browsers are exists such as Internet Explorer (IE), Google chrome, Mozilla Firefox etc.

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Domain Name server

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure4.jpg

The D-Domain N-Name S-Server (DNS) which receives the domain name like www.amazon.com and sends the corresponding IP address for the Domain Name. The IP address is processed by the HTTP request and the request is forwarded to the Application server through the web server[4].

IT centre infrastructures and service

The details of IT centre and services offered by IT centre is given in the following table

Labs

PC's

internet facility

Web server

File server

lab 1

60

Yes

yes

yes

Lab2

90

yes

yes

yes

Lab 3

45

yes

yes

yes

classroom

7

yes

yes

yes

system Administrator

2

yes

yes

yes

Administration

5

No

yes

yes

tutors

3

No

yes

yes

Virtual Private Network (VPN)

VPN provides secured way for communication in between the terminals through unsecured network. The network uses security protocols such as tunnelling protocols to make the communication in an encrypted format[5]. The encrypted information transmitted from the sender point will be decrypted at the destination point.

The Holmes institute provides the access for their authorized users with the VPN network.

Security requirements for Network Design

  • Fixing the access limitation for the resources of the Holmes
  • Fixing protocols for accessing the resources and getting services from the VPN
  • Setting Data bases accessing rights

The Network Administrator set the security policy for accessing over the VPN such policy includes

Access Rights

The access rights are defined to users of the Holmes to access the resources. The IT centre allocated terminal for administration and tutor. Those terminals are not having internet facility. The access rights for those systems are restricted.

Each department has two sub nets. One subnet is for staffs and another subnet for staff. Staff resources are not accessed by student.

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Authentication

The network administrator setup authentication records for each user of the institute. To access the resources the user proves their identity with the institute.

Test Objective

The following test depicts the through put of the wireless connectivity

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure5.jpg

Network security test is depicted in the following illustration

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure6.jpg

Router Configuration based on performance

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure7.jpg

CISCO Performance tuning

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure8.jpg

Regression Testing for Network Design

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure9.jpg

Method to further improve the security of the new network

VLAN implementation is to divide the local area Network into more logical partitions. For each logical partition user access rights, authentication, Authorization are setup to further improve the security of the Institute.

Network Management and fault Recovery

The Network Management and fault recovery management plan includes OS patching, desktop supporting, updating firewall and anti-virus software, remove fault management.

Network Topology

Overview of Network Topology

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure10.jpg

Departmental Network Design

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure11.jpg

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Estimation costing

The below table illustrates the number of terminals required for each department and the estimated cost for the above mentioned of Holmes Institute.

Departments

PC's

Cost in $

Total Cost in $

School of IS

60

753

45180

School of Cyber Security

90

753

67770

School of Fashion

45

753

33885

Student service

30

753

22590

Higher Education

60

753

45180

Exam and Accrefitation

15

753

11295

Miscellaneous

50

753

37650

Total Cost



263550

The institute requires two servers such as Web server and File server. Cost estimation for the server is listed below

servers

cost in $

Total Cost in $

web server

1

2000

file server

1

1000

Total cost


3000

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The total cost estimated for the IT centre is depicted in the following table

Labs

PC's

Cost in $

Total Cost in $

lab 1

60

753

45180

Lab2

90

753

67770

Lab 3

45

753

33885

classroom

7

753

5271

system Administrator

2

753

1506

Administration

5

753

3765

tutors

3

753

2259

total Cost



159636

Additional cost such as networking cost, purchase of software, networking equipment are listed in the following table

Purpose

Cost in $

Networking

15000

Purchase of Software

10000

Networking quipments

10000

Total Cost

35000

The institute has to spend around $470000 for the construction of new network for the institute.

Conclusion

The project studies the requirements for the new network design for the Holmes institute based on the infrastructure. The Holmes institute has different schools, departments and IT cenctre including Labs. The institute offer wireless service for their students and staff, VPN for remote users and internet services with constraints.

Network design for the new architecture is the tedious task. The project proposed new network design with considerations of all requirements for the institute. The project proposed network topology and tested in CISCO packet tracer. The project examines the cost incurred for the new network design. It gives the estimated cost budget for the network design.

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Part 2: Network Congestion Control

Abstract

The report study the Network Congestion Control, Causes and the costs of congestion. It also deals about the approaches to congestion control.

Network Congestion

The network is the interconnection of devices or nodes to transmit data over the network[1]. To transmit the data, link or channel will be created. The flow of data is done from source node to destination node through the link. The link is otherwise called as route. Too much of traffic in the link or route is known as congestion.

Congestion is the heavy traffic state of network route over a particular period of time. It istoo much of dataresides in the channel. The large amount of data affects the quality of the network in terms of service[2]. Congestion affects the network service in the following ways such as

  • The data pacts are stay in the queue. The packets are not processed quickly. The packet is not move step forward due to the traffic
  • It may be chance of loss of packets
  • Due to high transmission delay the hosts are start sending the packets again. It may create more complicated situation
  • Congestion blocks establishment of new connection
  • Network throughput is highly affected

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure12.jpg

Causes and the costs of congestion

large number of host

Broadcasting involves more number of terminals. The terminals may include host, switches, routers etc. It forms complicated network. The data packets are transmitted over this complicated structure. The terminals are accessing the network at the same.

Storms

In certain situation the network traffic is heavy. For example, the university displays the result on website, the students are trying to access the website at a same time. Many requested are posted to the web server to get the service from the web server. Due to heavy request, it increases network traffic.

Most of the ecommerce sites announce offers on particular moment. At that time, more clients are trying to access the website. It is also increase the network traffic.

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Size of bandwidth is low

Bandwidth is the total capacity of the transmission medium to process the network traffic. The network traffic is high than the available it leads to congestion. For example, while watching the online cricket match, most of the user accessing internet at the same time to get the same resource. This situation leads to network congestion because the size of the network traffic is high than the available bandwidth.

Retransmission

In network hubs are used to retransmit the data. Hubs are otherwise called as repeaters. While retransmitting the data again and again it will create congestion.

Multicasting

In multicasting more number of terminals involves for communication at the same time. Data packets are start travelling at the same. It increases network congestion as well as the same data packets may be lead for collision.

Lack of technology

The technology used to build network is adequate to process the network traffic efficiently. The efficiency of the hardware is low to handle such traffic leads for congestion. Each hardware device consumes more time to handle network traffic.

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure13.jpg

Lack of network configuration

Proper network configuration and management is essential for increasing the throughput of the network. Network configuration management is the network engineer's responsibility. Lack of configuration introduces bugs in the network. Management of network is good for healthy data traffic.

Approaches to congestion control

The techniques of congestion control are used for avoiding and preventing from congestion. The techniques are classified into two types such as preventive techniques and countermeasures[3].

Preventive techniques

The techniques or the measures are taken before the congestion occurs. These are the preventing measures of congestion. These measures can be taken either at source end or destination end[4].

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The techniques are as follows

Redesigned retransmission techniques

The sender sends data packet to receiver. The sender is requesting to resend the data packet due to corruption or loss of sent packets. The proper redesign of the timer to send the data packets avoids congestion.

Selective window technique

In Go back n window technique, the senders resend the n-window to the receiver, even though the receiver receives the correct window. It may create duplicate packets at the receiver end. It also increases the network traffic and congestion.

Discard techniques

The discarding actions can be taken by routers. The router can discard the corrupted and less sensitive packets without entering into the network. These packets unwantedly increase the network traffic and also affect the quality of the service.

Reframing of acknowledgement techniques

The sender sends the data packets. The receiver sends the acknowledgment back to the sender or each data packet. It may increase the network traffic. Instead of giving the acknowledgement for every received packet, the receiver sends the acknowledgment for the packets those are only to resend. This technique can reduce the network traffic as well as congestion.

Admission technique

The router decides the packets to allow entering into the network or not. The router take decision depends upon the current status of the network. When the router predicts the chances tooccur congestion then the router is not allowing the packets to enter into the network.

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Countermeasures

These techniques are the treating techniques after the congestion occurs in the network[5]. These techniques are as follows

Backpressure technique

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure14.jpg

After congestion occurs, the congested terminal stop is not accepting data packets from the ancestor node. It starts rejecting the data packets to reduce the congestion[6]. Like the same, the ancestor node stops accepting the packets from their ancestor nodes. The process is repeating until the root node to reduce congestion.

Choke packet

Communication & Networks Assignment Figure15.jpg

The router node verifies each of its resources and its usages. The usage exceeding its base line set by the administrator, it leads to congestion. The router node sends the information to the source node for not sending the packets again to reduce the traffic. The router node is not sending the feedback regarding packet transmission to the intermediate node. It directly sends the feedback to the source node.

Implicit source technique

In this technique, the source node aware of the congestion at the destination end. The source node itself stops sending the packets to the receiving node.

Explicit technique

The routing node in the network aware of the congestion, it explicitly sends data packetto the source for not sending the packets. It has two sub techniques such as forward explicit technique and backward explicit technique.

Conclusion

The report briefly studies the congestion in network, causes for congestion, preventive and counter measures for the congestion.

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