- Electromagnetism is the branch of physics which describing electromagnetic force.
- This force states two types of fields such as electric field and magnetic field. These fields generated by electrically charged body.
- Magnetic fields is due to moving charges.in this moving charge feels force which acts perpendicular to the direction and its velocity.so, if charge particles are moving in forwards direction in the vertical magnetic field, then there will be a force pushing to another side. If no other force, then field would end up moving along a circular trajectory.
- But electric fields are acted on charged particles. These fields push the particles along the direction of the electric field. Charge particles around the magnetic fields moves in circle.
- Electric and magnetic field have their own dynamics.as electromagnetic waves are interlocked oscillations of electric and magnetic fields. These fields can propagate in empty space. For example: radio waves, light, X-rays, gamma rays, etc.
Uses and examples:
Electromagnetism can be used in much application such as:
- The basic principle of working of home appliances is based on the electromagnetism. This application includes lighting, kitchen appliances, air conditioning systems, etc.
For example: let's take electric fans which use electric motor. So this motor works on the principle of electromagnetic induction. According to the Lorenz force principle, electric motor is moved by magnetic field which produced by the electric current. Based on the application size, rating and cost of motor vary.
- Industrial appliance worked based on the electromagnetism. Materials which are used to construct such devices include cobalt, nickel, etc. which generally respond to the magnetic fields.
For example: different types of sensors and actuating devices. Electromagnetic sensors different sensors such as Hall Effect sensors, fluxgate sensors, etc. these type of sensors convert physical quantity such that flow, pressure, level, etc into electrical quantity.
- Communication system is the process sending the information from sender to receiver. This transmission of data carried out through electromagnetic waves at high frequencies over a long distance. These waves are called as microwaves or radio waves with high frequencies.
For example: in mobile phones, sound energy is converted to electromagnetic energy. Radio transmitter is used to transmit electromagnetic energy is transferred to the receiver.in receiver side , electromagnetic waves are again converted into sound energy.as per the base band signal, communication system can analog or digital communication system. When electromagnetic field are propagated away from source without any connection or medium connecting to source then electromagnetic wave radiation formed.
- Medical system field is popular where electromagnetic field plays vital role.in advance medical equipment such as implants, hyperthermia for cancer, etc. The frequency used in medical application is radio frequency.
For example: in magnetic resonance imaging scan works based on the electromagnetism. It can scan every details of human body in minutes. Some medical equipment's such as X-rays equipment, scanners and other equipment's uses electromagnetism principles.
Electromagnetic problems examples:
1) The primary of a transformer is connected to a source of voltage that has two components: an alternating current (AC) component of 120 volts and a steady direct current (DC) component of 5 volts. The number of turns of the primary is 100 and that of the secondary is 2000. What is the voltage at the output of the secondary?
Transformers block steady Dc currents and let only AC current through and therefore the output voltage will have an AC component only. The relationship between secondary voltage Vs, the primary voltage Vp, the numbers of turns in the secondary coil Ns and the number of turns in the primary Np is
Vs / Vp = Ns / Np
Vs / 120 = 2000 / 100
Vs = 2400 v (AC )
2) A transformer with an efficiency of 50% is connected to 10-volt alternating current source. The voltage and current in the secondary are 100 Volts and 0.1 Amperes respectively. What is the current in the primary?\
The efficiency is the ratio of the power at the secondary of the transformer to the input power at the primary.
50% = ( Is Vs ) / ( VpIp )
0.5 = (100 v × 0.1 A) / (10 v × Ip)
Ip = ( 100 v × 0.1 A ) / ( 10 v × 0.5 )
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