Vaccines Assignment Help, Types of vaccine, Immunology



A vaccine is a biological preparation that helps to improve immunity for a particular disease. It is an intentional method of injecting less harmful or dead pathogen into the body which has its antigen to induce the immune response for future prevention from that disease. This solution usually contains a component which resembles that particular disease causing organism which is made from weakened killed form of microbes, toxins or surface proteins. This stimulates the immune system to recognize the microbes as foreign agent and destroys it. Immunization is very important, all the immunization should be done before the age of 1 year.


Edward Jenner made the world's first vaccine in 1796 made cow pox and small pox vaccination by taking the pus from the affected person's lesions.

Types of vaccine

1)  Live attenuated vaccine - it contains living microbe which is weakened in lab so that it doesn't cause disease.

2)  Inactivated vaccines - The microbes are killed using chemical, radiation and heat and used dead.

3)  Subunit vaccines - It contains only special antigens and not all molecules of the microbes.

4)  Toxoid vaccines - They are used when bacterial toxins are main cause of disease.

5)  Conjugated vaccines - polysaccharide coating disguise a bacteriums antigen so that immune system or infants do not respond to them.

6)  DNA vaccines-this vaccine invokes a strong antibody response to free floating antigens.

7)  Recombinant vector vaccines - These are experimental viruses which uses vector to introduce microbial DNA to cell body.

Vaccine List

1)      Adenovirus

2)      Anthrax

3)      Diphtheria

4)      Hepatitis A

5)      Hepatitis B

6)      Hib

7)      HPV

8)      Flu

9)      Measles

10)  Mumps

11)  Pertussis

12)  Pneumococcal

13)  Polio

14)  Rabies

15)  Rotavirus

16)  Rubella

17)  Small pox

18)  Tetanus

19)  Tuberculosis

How does vaccine work?

Immune system is a complex system in which various specialised cells like macrophages, B-cells, T-cells. Cells are basically identified by the markers on the surface of the microbe made of molecules; the markers are specific for specific microbes hence they distinguished with the help of their markers. So the microbe which identifies them and kills the foreign molecules are called antigens. Each microbe carries its specific antigens which are helpful in making vaccines. The foreign microbes are killed and they leave the antigens in the lymph node where T-cells takes over identifies the affected cells and damage it completely with the help of chemical compound released after binding to them. Next comes B-cells which secrete antibodies which bind to antigen and coat the microbes,so due to antigen antibody interaction the microbe is unable to function and hence becomes inactive.One antibody can fit with only one antigen and hence lot of antibodies are produced by the body after identifying foreign antigen by producing many b-cells. The antibodies secreted by B-cells then kill the microbes floating in the blood stream. After body eliminates disease the B & T cells becomes memory cells and becomes plasma and arranges army of microbes to fight if exposed to infection in future.


1)  Prevention of disease - This helps in preventing the most common and letehal disease occurring in common population to be safe to lead a better and healthy life.

2) Eradication of disease - This helps in completely eradicating the disease like polio in India. It took long time but government's initiation and public's cooperation helped to eradicate the diseases. There is many more disease aimed to be eradicated.

3)  Money saved - As the vaccination has prevented public from various diseases the revenue for medical health has been saved for other purpose.


1) Artificial immunity will compromise body's immunity to defend for a long time as everything has an expiry date.

2) Risk of harmful and toxic chemicals being introduced in body can cause certain diseases which can be lethal for the being.

3) A too high dose of vaccine has started creating problems in certain kids worldwide which has created awareness to reduce the dose and duration of the vaccine. A new protocol should be made and followed.

4) There have been reports that there is occurrence of disease even after taking vaccine because its effect stops in few days which leads to recurrence of disease in future.

Vaccine war

It is the movement in which parents were asked to vaccinate their kids at the age of 6 again to increase their immunity but many parents refused for it by hearing a lot about the consequences of the different vaccines on different kids but few parents agreed for it. When all kids are vaccinated the herd immunity is created which means the entire society is safe from that particular disease.

Importance of vaccine in academic curriculum

It should be introduced in the schools and colleges as a subject to give them information about the immune system and the working and necessity of vaccine in our population. They should then be encouraged to spread the awareness in the uneducated population too. There are various disorders but one among them is for preventing cancer which is the cervical cancer. It is the second most widespread cancer in India, it is caused by human papilloma virus commonly called as HPV for which vaccination is an initial step taken by medical facilities to prevent this. It is therefore necessary to educate people about the reason of occurrence of cervical cancer and what are the healthy and safety measures to be followed to prevent it. Population should be made aware of the condition and given them knowledge about it so that they can accept it and help in the coordination of this programme to be successful. Every woman now irrespective of age and symptoms should be advised for pap smear by clinicians because the clinicians themselves lack the awareness of the spread of this disease in the population. This is caused after the sexual intercourse and hence people hesitate to discuss about it but this mentality should be kept aside and free conversation should be carried with the youths so that they can be aware of the exact situation and may follow safety measures for their good health and survival.  

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