### electric and electronic devices, Electronics engineering

Electric and electronic device problem

a)      Difference between electric and electronic device

• The electrical device components like resistors, electric wires don't requires a power supply for operation while electronic active components like transistors, ICs etc. requires their own power supply for operation.
• In Electrical device, output power of the signals applied to them can never exceed the input power i.e. there is no amplification of power. While electronic circuits can provide power amplification.
• Electronics devices can be viewed as a decision mankind device like a mobile phone. While electrical device such as bulb cannot do, hence electrical device lacks decision making.
• Electrical devices operate with high currents and voltages while electronic devices operate at low current and voltages.
• Electrical devices produce current & voltage while electronic devices control current & voltage.
• Mostly electrical devices work with Alternating voltages and current while Electronics with DC.
• Electronic devices deals with semiconductor, transistors while electric devices deals with motor, transformers etc.
• Electronics devices are made from semiconductor material and works upon the principle of controlled electron flow. While electrical devices are made from polymers, copper etc works on the principle of electrons flow in the conductor.
• The basic electrical circuits are mainly composed of three element:
• Resistor: it is circuit passive and bidirectional element which offers resistance to flow of current in a conductor and which is mainly responsible for the power dissipation in the circuits.
• Inductor: it is a passive energy storage element which offers high reactance to the sudden change in the current. Inductor stores energy in the form of magnetic field. The power dissipation by inductor is negligible, ideally it is 0. For analog circuit analysis, inductor act as open circuited for AC and short circuited for DC signal.
• Capacitor: capacitor is the most important passive element which offers high reactance to the sudden change in the polarity of applies voltage and it stores energy in the form of electric field. Ideal power dissipation in capacitor is 0. For circuit analysis, capacitor act as open circuit for DC and short circuited for AC signal. The most important applications of capacitor in analog processing are:

1) Clampers: To add DC voltage levels

2) Peak diode rectifiers: To generate ripples free output voltage.

3) Single time constants circuits: high pass RC and low pass RC circuits.

4) In amplifiers to interconnect amplifiers and load

5) It block DC voltages and by-pass AC voltages

6) Capacitors can control the bandwidth of amplifiers circuits and prevents the negative feedback thus decrease in gain.

b) Electronic devices and circuits

Ø  Electronic devices are those devices which are made from semiconductor material such P-type and N-type, and works upon the principle of controlled electron flow.

Transistor, diode, RLC composition are electronic devices

• Transistor: Transistor is combination of two diodes connected back to back with appropriate doping densities and bonding forces. It is an electronic device which can perform both switching and amplification of the signal. Transistor can act as a current source or voltage source. For example:

Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) acts as a current controlled current source (CCCS). Transistor is of two types based on the semiconductor material used:

Field effect transistor (FET) acts as a voltage controlled current source (VCCS)

Metal oxide FET (MOSFET) acts as a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS).

Transistor is of two types: NPN and PNP transistors.

• Diode: Diode is unidirectional device which can act as a rectifier, switch, clipper etc. as per the position and requirements. The diodes which are mostly considered in the analog circuits are made up of silicon and germanium. One special diode known as zener diode is used in the analog regulator circuits which have large power handling capabilities and suitably used for voltage regulation in breakdown region. Normal diode works in forward conduction mode whereas zener diode is generally used in reverse conduction mode as constant reference voltage source.
• RLC composition: this composition is generally used for transient and steady state analysis of signals. It perform filtering operation like high pass filtering, low pass filtering, band pass filtering etc.

High pass filtering: this circuit transmits high frequencies and attenuates lower frequencies

Low pass filtering: this circuit passes low frequencies or DC signal and attenuates high frequency components.

Band pass filtering: this circuit allows a band of frequencies to pass through.

Example: RC coupled CE amplifier can act as HPF at low frequency and LPF at high frequency.

Ø  Electronics circuit is the circuit which has at least one electronic device. Example: Amplifier, rectifier, oscillator etc.

Amplifiers:

v  Amplifier based on input and output signals:

• Voltage amplifiers
• Current amplifiers
• Trans-conductance amplifier
• Trans-resistance amplifier

v  Amplifier based on signal variations:

• Small signal amplifiers
• Large signal amplifiers

v  Amplifier based on signal variations:

• DC amplifiers
• Audio and video frequency amplifiers
• RF or tuned amplifiers
• Microwave amplifiers

Rectifiers:

• Half wave rectifiers
• Full wave center-tap rectifier
• Full wave bridge rectifier.

Oscillators: high frequency and low frequency oscillators such as:

• RC phase shift oscillator
• Wien bridge oscillator
• LC oscillator

c)      Electronics in physics

Most electronic devices such as diodes, transistors etc. use semiconductor components to perform controlled operation of electrons. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid-state physics, while the construction and design of electronic circuits to solve real-time or practical problems come under electronics engineering.

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