Control System:- For successfully conduction of any system it is necessary to have a control unit which controls the functioning of all elements of the system to getting desired output. For example, in human body various body parts like legs, hands, ears, eyes, nose etc. have different work to perform any task but these body parts controlled by human brain. Means human body is a system and human brain is the control unit of the body. If human brain is not functioning properly then control on the body part also affected and this type of human called mentally ill. Similarly in technical field a control system is the assembly of devices which arranged in planned manner to manage the behavior of other devices. A control system is an interconnection of element connected in such a manner as to command direct to regulate itself or another system. In control system the relation between input and output represent by the mathematical relation. If mathematical relation is linear then control system is called linear control system. Without control unit we can't get desired output of the system. There are various examples to explain control system which is mention in end of this topic.
Types of Control System: - There are two types of control system-
a. Open loop control system.
b. Close loop control system.
In open loop control system the output of the system has no effect or influence on the control action unit. In open loop control system the output of the system neither monitored nor feedback for comparison with the system input. Accuracy of the output is depends on the accuracy of the input.
Fig. Open loop control system
For example, an electric fan is connected by power supply of 230 volts which is interrupt by a power switch and voltage regulator. Voltage regulator nobe is fixed on 230 volts. When we switch on the fan, we will not check the speed of blade because it is fixed. This is open loop connection. But, after switch on the fan if we rotate the nobe of the regulator with continuous monitoring of speed of blades to get desired speed is close loop function because you are continuous taking feedback of speed.
In close loop control system the output of the system has an effect and influence on control action unit by using feedback path. In this process comparison measure between input and output and maintain it to get accurate output to desired level by the control action unit.
Fig. Close loop control system
In above example speed of the blades measured through feedback path and difference measured between current speeds of the blade to desire speed of the blade. Many other examples are available to explain and differentiate between open loop and close loop control system.
Difference between open loop and close loop control system: -
Open loop control system
Close loop control system
Calibration of the input decide the accuracy of an open loop control system
Difference between input and output is continuously measured by feedback path. The close loop system work more accurate as compare to open loop.
The open loop system is stable.
It can be unstable in certain condition.
It can be design and construct easily.
This is complicated system.
Setup of open loop system is cheaper.
Setup of close loop system is costly.
The implementation of open loop system is easy.
Various difficulties is find during implementation of close loop system
This is highly noise sensitive.
This is less noise sensitive.
Correction of any error is not possible in open loop system.
Error can be reduce and correct in close loop system
Examples of Control system:- There are various examples available to explain the control system. One is water level indicator. If we set the water pressure of the inlet pipe of water tank to fulfill the tank in fixed time is open loop system. This is possible that water tank fill or not in this system. But pressure of inlet pipe is full than a feedback monitor is required which check continuously the difference between growing water level and highest water level. This is close loop system. In this system this is confirm that tank will be full.
Similarly traffic light system is generally worked on open loop system. Timing of the each light is fixed. It is not depend on the traffic rush. But a man is standing there to watch traffic rush and he opens the light to observe traffic rush it will become close loop system.
Many other examples also present like temperature sensor system, voltage regulation system etc. Conclusion is that each system required control system to get fruitful output without any error and loss.
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