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Basic concepts of Molecular Physics

The ancients have hypothecated that matter is made out of small partials. Democritus proposed that all material things are composed of extremely small irreducible particles called atoms. Although that was rejected by Aristotle.Robert Boyle revived atomic theory and extended physics behind partials and field of chemistry started. For him chemistry was the science of the composition of substances, not to the arts of the alchemist. He proposed elements is made up of similar fundamental constituents of material bodies and made the distinction between mixtures and compounds.

So as soon as the concept of atom and molecules developed the scientist started thinking the physics behind those molecules. Like why they are so fundamental, why the atoms are so stable. This leads to discovery of finding  of electrostatics force between the center +ve charge and revolving -ve charge. Fact of electromagnetic radiation was known by that time. Now if charge partial is revolving around another charge partial then there must be radiation of energy, i.e. energy loss by electromagnetic radiation can cause the collapse the atom, so why not they collapse? Answering this phenomenon we developed classical mechanics where electron move in a certain orbit do not radiate the energy. Gradually quantum theories developed.

Electron revolves in the form of electron cloud i.e. in three dimensional spaces forming a solid structure of atom. If it would have revolve like solar system in a plane then universe may not come into existence as solid 3D structure of atom would have not been possible. So electron revolve in some specific orbit where no radiation and that is where angular momentum (L) of electron is, L=nh/2*phi, where h = plancks constant.

If electron absorb specific quantum of energy it elevates to a higher orbit and while release that energy it come back to original orbit. So for this process it absorbs a particular wave length from white light, which matches the particular quanta of energy which required to elevate the electron to higher orbit (i.e. E=hv). From the white light it absorbs the specific wave length and emits that specific frequency of light. That is why it glows with its own color like a silver emits silver color, gold emits yellow, copper with red color while white light incident on it.

When atom get required quantum of energy to free from the orbit, it flies away from one atom and goes to outer orbit of other atom, produce a -ve and +ve atom. Then these different atom may combine with electrical attraction and forming electro valent bond hence forming a compound like Nacl(Na+ and Cl-), ZnSO4 etc. These compounds form a Cristal structure according to their participating atom size. Some produce cubical like NaCl, some produce hexagonal structure like graphite. Again orientation of molecular crystal affects the mechanical strength and properties like ductility, malleability, toughness, brittleness etc.

Again the bonding like electro valent (as discussed) or covalent bond (electron share between the participating atoms of the compound) decides the electro chemical behavior of the compound. Just like Nacl in the water move with free hence is a good conductor of electricity, where as compound like oil made of carbon and hydrogen with covalent bonds do not produce ions and hence bad conductor. So we can predict the electrical property of the compound by observing the electro chemical activity series of atoms. 

Importance of Molecular Physics

Unless we know the physics behind the molecules we cannot use the chemistry properly. We come to know the charge is the fundamental particle of atom. So we developed battery by exploring the knowledge of electrolyte behavior, invented the efficient semiconductor by doping it to reduce the energy gap between valance and conduction band to be work under low voltage zone. We have come to know that why radioactive elements are unstable. We can generate

huge energy from radioactive chain reaction by bombarding on Uranium with highly energized alpha particle. This is the knowledge of mass energy equivalent (E=mc^2) come to reality.

Modern science is taking about alteration of genes and DNA stands to fight against deadly disease like cancer, or talking about long life immortal super human with improved DNA, which may not fictitious now. It is just in the  door step for the bless of Molecular Physics.

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