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Fluid Dynamics

Basic concepts of Fluid Dynamics

Before jumping into the term"fluid dynamics", let me first explain what both the terms fluid and dynamics explicitly mean.

Any liquid or gaseous matter necessarily means fluid- any matter that flows, does not have any shape or size, and responds little to any externally applied pressure.

**Dynamics** means the combination of both **statics** and **kinematics**. Study of fluid at rest is known as fluid **statics**, whereas study of fluid in motion is known as fluid **kinematics**. The study of fluid where both motion and pressure forces both are considered is known as fluid **dynamics**.

Basic concepts of fluid dynamics rely on the properties of fluids. For easy understanding, let me explain them one-by-one.

**Density or Mass density**- in fluids, density or mass density is the ratio of the mass of the fluid to the volume of the fluid. Density in liquids is considered constant whereas that of gases change with variations in temperature and pressure.

SI units- kg/ m^{3}

**Weight density (specific weight)** - It is defined as the ratio between the weight of the fluid to its volume.

Weight w= (mass of fluid/ volume of fluid) x acceleration due to gravity,

Mathematically, w= mass density x acceleration due to gravity

SI units- N/ m^{3}

**Specific volume**- volume occupied by a unit mass or volume per unit mass of the fluid.

SI units- m^{3}/ kg

**Viscosity**- defined in which one layer of the fluid resists the motion of its adjacent layer. This resistance along with the relative velocity causes shear stress to develop between the adjacent layers of the fluid.

SI units- N-s/m^{2}

**Kinematic viscosity**- is defined as the ratio between the dynamic viscosity and the density of the fluid.

SI units- m^{2}/ sec

**Newton's laws of viscosity-**shear stress on an element of a fluid are directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is known as the coefficient of viscosity.

**Variations of viscosity with temperature**- viscosity are affected by variations in temperature. In liquids, viscosity is inversely proportional to temperature, whereas, in gases, viscosity is directly proportional to temperature.

In liquids increase in temperature decrease the cohesive forces, thereby decreasing the viscosity. In gases, however, increase in temperature increase the cohesive forces, thereby increasing the viscosity.

**Various types of fluids**

**Ideal fluids**- fluids that are incompressible and possess zero viscosity.

**Real fluids**- fluids that possess viscosity.

**Newtonian fluids**- any fluid following Newton's laws of viscosity.

**Non- Newtonian fluids**- any fluid deviating from Newton's laws of viscosity.

**Ideal- Plastic fluids**- shear stress is more than yield value and follows Newton's laws of viscosity.

**Thermodynamic properties**

Since gases are compressible in nature, thermodynamic properties affect their characteristics. With change in temperature and pressure, there are variations in the density of gases. This relationship between pressure, temperature, number of moles in the gas, and the gas constant, is also known as ideal gas laws.

Mathematically, PV=nRT,

Where, P= absolute pressure,

V= specific volume, n= no. of moles, T= absolute temperature, R= gas constant.

**Kinematics of fluid flow**-

Is defined as that branch of science which deals with the motion of fluid particles without considering the forces that are causing the motion. Mathematically, the velocity of the fluid particles at any point in a flow field at any time is our concern.

**Types of fluid flow**-

**Steady flow**- is defined as that flow in which the various parameters such as velocity, pressure, density, etc at any point do not change.

**Unsteady flow**- is defined as that flow in which the various parameters at any point change with respect to time.

**Uniform flow**- flow velocity at any point of time remains unchanged with respect to space.

**Non- uniform flow**- flow velocity at any point of time changes with respect to space.

**Laminar flow**- is defined as that flow wherein the fluid follows a streamlined path, also known as viscous flow.

**Turbulent flow-** is defined as that flow wherein the fluid follows a random path giving rise to eddy resulting in heavy energy losses.

**Compressible flow**- is defined in which the density of the fluid varies from one point to another.

**Incompressible flow**- is defined in which the density of the fluid remains constant throughout.

**Rotational flow**- the fluid particles flow along streamline paths and simultaneously rotate about their own axes.

**Irrigational flow**- the fluid particles while flowing along streamline paths do not rotate about their own axes.

**Importance of fluid dynamics-**

Fluids form integral part of our day-to-day life. We already know that liquids and gases together form the term, "fluids". But the sole purpose of separating them in our studies can excite your curiosity.

Neither liquids nor gases have any definite shape or form. Then why is it that certain fluids are liquids, and other, gases?

Actually, the basic criteria of separating liquids from gases are entirely on their respective properties and the principles they follow.

In liquids, the cohesive forces are more binding than gases. Therefore liquid molecules are closely stacked as compared to gas molecules.

Most of our technical utilities like water coolers, pumps, a/cs, refrigerators. Turbines, pressure and temperature measuring instruments, ships and submarines, and, processes like buoyancy, heating of fluids, flow in pipes, orifices are all based on laws of fluid dynamics. It is practically unthinkable to understand the working of the above facilities without having prior and basic knowledge of fluids and their dynamics.

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