The Total Quality Management (TQM) is a continuous and incessant process in an organization that ensures satisfaction of the patrons and long-term loyalty to the customers. As mentioned by Abbey and Guide(2017), TQM is installed within an organization for continuously improving and delivering premium quality services and products to the patrons. It is the philosophy of the management, which integrates all the businessfunctions like finance, design engineering, marketing, production, customer services, and manufacturing of an organization. TQM ensures that every employee is working towards the improvement of working culture, services, processes and systems at the workplace for ensuring enduring and long-term success. It is a conglomeration of the management tools and quality, which aims towards increasing business as well as reducing the throw of wasteful products and practices that incur high wastes. Ahmad et al.(2014)stated that TQM in an organization strives towards continuous improvement of the processes through incorporatingthe experiences and knowledge of the employees and staff members. It believes in doing the right actions, at the right time and continues it for the lifetime. TQM is dynamic in nature and hence varies with the time and is quite adaptable in nature. TQM is a well-recognized and standardmanagement tool, which applies to public and private sectors; along with organizations dealing with services and products.
According to Akgün et al. (2014), the TQM involves four diverse categories of actions like Plan, Do, Check and Act, which is also known as PDCA cycle. The "Planning"phase is one of the most crucial phases of TQM where the employees come up with the problems, hindrances, and queries they are facing for getting appropriate solutions to it. The various challenges faced by the employees in their daily operationsare analyzed to understand thecause of the problems. In the "Doing"phase, suitablesolutionsto the problems are developed by the employees. The diverse strategies are implemented for overcoming the hindrances faced by the staff members. In this stage, the effectiveness of the strategies is also measured. Al-Dhaafri and Al-Swidi(2016)mentioned that in the "Checking" phase, the employees conduct a comparativeanalysis for comparing the results before and after implementation of the TQM. It is done to confirm the effectiveness of the processes that has been achievedafter implementation of TQM. The last stage is the "Acting"phase where the employees prepare themselves for addressing the problems with the solutions received. Moreover, they also prepare in addressingthe other hindrances they are facing at the workplace for application of TQM in solving those problems.
Andrade et al.(2017) had opined that TQM is customer focused in nature and involves the internal stakeholders for continual development and improvement in the organizations. It uses several strategies, data, information and effective communication mean for integrating quality and excellence in the activities and culture of the organization. The principles by which TQM operates are customer-focused, the involvement of employees, process centered,integrated system, systematic and strategicapproach, continuous improvement, decision making and communications. The quality changes and improvements are based on the requirements of the customers. As stated by Aquilani et al. (2017),TQM is concerned towards overall improvement across the workplace, which includes improvement of the capabilities of the people and the processes. It includes the activities such as specific incorporation of strategic planning, the involvement of employees, empowerment of the employees, reduction of production and servicing costs, reduction of development time and meeting of requirements of customers. This report will be discussing the competitive advantage of TQM in the organizations, and the issues related to production and operation management within the organizations. It also discusses the practices of TQM in this contemporary environment and the influence of it in the information technology.
Competitive Advantage of Total Quality Management
In this contemporary marketplace, the future of the organizationslay on the customer experiences regarding the products and services they are enjoying the company. The TQM applied in the business facilitates generating sustainable competitive advantage to the organizations. According to Azizi et al. (2016), the philosophy of TQM emphasizes on the lowering of the business costs by reduction of waste, satisfying the customers and providing them with quality services and products. It is seen that the organizationsthose sell products and services at lower cost to the customers, without compromising the quality, the customers tend to remain loyal to them. Over the years, the organizations have shifted its focus to competitive positioningand gaining of advantages in the business as a strong strategic management approach. Hazen et al.(2014) mentioned that for gaining strong competitive advantages, TQM includes several features like reducing costs of manufacturing and selling, along with helping suppliers, hiring quality workers and employees, and accentuating on customer satisfaction. The organizations also make sure to deliver the products and services in time to the customers. It also aims to reduce the operational cycles,reduction of delays, better usage of resources and higher productivity. To secure a reputed and prestigious position in the world, the organization needs to take both quality and productivity hand-in-hand for making the customers and employees realize the goals and commitments and goals of the organization.
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