Digital Electronics- Digital electronics introduce for performing numerical computations fast and accurately. In digital, one word is hide that is digit; it means a theory or concepts of electronics which depends on numbers and digits, called digital electronics. Transistor was invented in 1947 to fabricate logic circuit and after that digital IC. Transistor introduced two state level 'on' and 'off' which considered effectively in digital electronics where 'on' and 'off' state or two voltage level represent by two numbers '1' and '0'. Complete theory of digital electronics based on Binary no system. Operation and working of all the circuits and systems of digital electronics represent by binary numbers by making truth table. That is the reason to call it digital electronics. The running age is electronics age. All the equipment like mobile, camera, led television etc. designed and made by digital circuit. Even automobile, aeronautics, civil engineering equipment is based on digital electronics.
Introduction and Principle of Digital Electronics Circuit- In our daily life, decision on various mater demands two states like yes or no, do or do not. It means there are only two answers and which will right it depends on conditions similarly digital electronics circuitry take decision. Digital electronics circuits made by large assembly of Logic Gates which perform logically and provide only two states of output 'High' or 'Low' and 'On' or 'Off' . These states represent by binary numbers '1' and '0'.Digital circuit are highly accurate, fast, efficient, cheaper and small in size. Most of the analog circuits have been replaced by digital circuit. Logic gates are key element of digital circuit which performs logical operation based on Boolean algebra.
A semiconductor diode shows conduction in forward bias and insulation in reverse bias. This characteristic of diode is employed to design logic gate and logical circuits. Logic gates have only one output and one or more input. Input and output both are two states high or low. There is various logic gates perform different logical operations based on different combination of states on inputs. 'AND' gate performs multiplication operation where if any one input is 'Low' then output also will be Low. 'OR' gate performs addition where if any one input is 'High' then output also will be high. "NOT' gate performs complement operation where if input is 'High' then output will be 'Low' and similarly reverse. These are basic gates. There are two combinational gates NAND and NOR and two specific gate EX-OR and EX-NOR. The combination of different logic gates to perform specific operation called combinational logic circuit. There are various combinational circuits like HALF ADDER and FULL ADDER, HALF SUBSTRACTOR and FULL SUBSTRATOR, Flip-Flop etc. Various digital circuits are invented to perform specific operations like multiplexer, de-multiplexer, decoder, encoder, counter, registers. These circuits also designed by logic gates. We can say that logic gates are unit cell of digital circuit and digital electronics. Use of digital electronics in different field make easy and convenient to live life.
Integrated Circuit (IC) Chip- Micro- electronics is the field of electronics engineering which deals with micro -electronics circuit. Micro-circuit is assembly of electronic components. Integrated circuit is the one type of micro circuit. An integrated circuit has various components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors etc. fabricated on a small semiconductor chip. In normal circuit these element are connected by wire on printed circuit board. This type of circuit has many disadvantages. The one is, it occupy the large space and inconvenient to port one place to another place. For example in previous time CRT television was used which size was large and occupy large space in home but now a days this television has been replaced by LED T.V. uses of integrated circuit make better and easy life.
In Integrated circuit (IC) chip various components such as capacitors, diodes, transistors, resistor etc. are fabricated on a small semiconductor chip. These components and inter connection of them perform complete electronics operation and function. In IC all components are part of a small semi-conductor chip and individual component cannot remove and replace. There are various advantages of IC-
1. The size of Integrated circuit is thousand times smaller than a normal circuit. Components and its interconnection can be identify and seen by microscopically.
2. Small size and small space also reduce the weight of complex electronics devices which can be used in various applications.
3. The most effective advantage of Integrate circuit is low cost. It reduces the cost of digital electronics devises by the self low cost.
4.The performance and outputs are extremely high reliable. Due to low power consumption temperature rise in low amount which improve its reliability.
5. Easy in replacement.
Integrated circuit is classified in four types on the basis of number of elements, its interconnection etc.-
1. Fabrication technique- In integrated circuit large number of electronic components are fabricated on single semiconductor chip. Then fabrication techniques are important on the basis of application. There are mainly three IC on the basis of fabrication-
a. Monolithic integrated circuit.
b. Hybrid integrated circuit
c. Thin and thick film integrated circuit.'
2. Functionality of integrated circuit- On the basis of function there are two types of IC. One is linear IC and another one is digital IC. If the relation between input output are linear caller linear IC. This type of IC is used in amplifiers and oscillator. If the digital circuit has only two states output called digital IC. This type of IC is used in computers and other electronics devices.
3. Size- Here the size of integrated circuit means number of gates fabricated on chip.On the basis of size of integrated circuit is classified in four types.
Small scale IC- this IC consists three to thirty numbers of gates on chip.
Medium scale IC- this is improving version of small scale IC. It consist thirty to three hundred gates on chip.
Large scale IC- this type of IC consist three hundred to three thousand gates on chip.
Very large scale IC- it consists three thousand and above gates on single chip.
Employed Device- in this section IC classified in two types. One is bipolar IC which contain bipolar junction transistor and another one is unipolar IC which contain unipolar device like FET.
IC 555 timer, IC 741 operational amplifier IC etc are the various example of integrated circuit which make easy electronic circuit.
Digital electronics based on binary number system and logical operations. Problems of Digital electronics can be solved by using concepts of Boolean algebra. Digital electronics is the most important part of our life. Now we can't imagine the life without digital electronics.
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