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Analog electronics

Introduction and principle

  • The main motivations for making electronic circuits are to process information or energy. Processing includes communication, storage, and computation. Stereo amplifiers, computers, and radios are examples of commonplace electronic systems for processing information.
  • Power supplies and light bulb circuit used in daily uses are the examples of electronic circuits that process energy.
  • In both cases, the physical quantity of interest, either the information or the energy, is represented in the circuit by an electrical signal, namely a current or a voltage, and circuit networks are used to process these signals. Thus, the manner in which a circuit fulfills its purpose is effectively the manner in which it treats the signals that are its terminal currents and voltages.
  • Signals in the physical world are most commonly analog, that is, spanning a continuum of values. Sound pressure is such a signal. The electromagnetic signal picked up by a mobile phone antenna is another example of an analog signal.
  • Thus analog electronics refers to the electronics system whose input and output signals are continuously varying signals i.e. analog signals, differ from its contrary digital system which utilizes the digital signals both at input and output.
  • The circuits which can process analog signals are called as analog electronic circuits.

Rectifier, amplifier, oscillator etc

  • Digital circuits are those electronics circuits which can process digital signal are called as digital electronic circuits.

Multiplexer, decoder, flip flop etc.

  • Analog signals are real time signal such as sinusoidal signals, non sinusoidal signals; hence they can be directly processed without the need of additional processing circuits.
  • Analog electronics works upon the principle of controlled electron flow through the applied proper biasing current and voltages.

Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), field effect transistors (FETs), metal oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFETs) can function as a:

  • Controlled switch (ON switch, OFF switch)
  • Amplifiers (low frequency, medium frequency, high frequency, small signal, large signal)
  • Possibly through the application of proper biasing supplies voltages and currents
  • Analog electronics is very important domain to process and generate signals having low power, high power with the help of various processing circuits' analysis.
  • Analog electronic circuit is useful in design of stable power supply, high frequency amplifier circuit (commonly called as RF amplifiers or Tuned amplifiers) etc.
  • In order to generate square wave, triangular wave, sinusoidal wave, pulse waveform etc. analog circuits are used
  • Although digital circuits have the advantage of less noise effect, easier design, digital data storage, ease of programming etc. over analog circuits, yet analog circuits are still in use because:
  • Easier processing: since real time system is analog in nature hence can be directly processed using analog circuits, while digital processing requires analog to digital converter and digital to analog converters
  • Analog circuits can easily process high power signals. 

a)  Analog electronics applications

I.  Power supply: - it is foremost need of analog circuit to process any analog signal input.

Ø  In order to obtain stable supply voltage irrespective of any supply and load fluctuations, analog circuits are used.

Ø  Stable power supply is formed using combination of three processing blocks:

1) Rectifier: It converts pure AC into pulsating DC i.e. rectifier converts bidirectional waveform into unidirectional waveform. But unwanted ripples i.e. AC components are still present at the output of rectifier. So In order to eliminate unwanted AC frequency components, filter circuits are used.

Rectifiers are mainly of three types:

  • Half-wave rectifier
  • Full wave centre-tap rectifier
  • Full-wave bridge rectifier.

2)  Filter: It converts pulsating DC of rectifier to fluctuating DC i.e. eliminates the AC harmonics and thus generate ripple free output at the filter output. But the output of filter is fluctuating with respect to load and line fluctuation, hence in order to regulate load and line, voltage regulators are used as the last functional block of power supply. Filter circuits are mainly four types:

  • Inductor filter
  • Capacitor filter
  • Inductor-capacitor filter (LC-filter)
  • CLC filter or (π- section filter).

3) Voltage regulator: It finally provides stable DC output. Regulators are of 2 types

  • Linear regulators

Ø  Series regulators

Ø  Shunt regulators

Ø  IC regulators (fixed or adjustable)

  • Non-linear regulators (switching regulators)

II.  Amplifiers: Amplifiers are the circuits that generate replica of applied input signal but with signal implication with respect to voltage, current and power.  Amplifiers are of many types based on the frequency range of the signals such as :

  • DC amplifiers: very Low frequency amplifier, also known as integrated circuit amplifiers (IC-amplifiers).

Frequency range: 0 Hz to few Hz

  • Audio and video amplifiers: these are medium frequency amplifiers such as RC-coupled common emitter amplifiers or pulse amplifiers.

Frequency range of audio amplifiers: few Hz to few KHz

Frequency range of video amplifiers: few KHz to few MHz

  • RF amplifiers: these are high frequency amplifiers, also known as tuned or band pass or narrow band amplifiers.

Frequency range: 100's of MHz

  • Microwave amplifiers: these are very high frequency amplifiers used to amplify microwave signals using the properly biased BJTs and MOSFETs.

Frequency range: 100's of MHz to 100's of GHz

III.       OP-AMP:

  • It is a Direct coupled amplifier with very high gain and useful in mathematical operations such as summing, substraction, amplification etc.
  • Op-amp can be used to generate square wave, triangular wave.
  • Op-amp can be used as log amplifier, anti-log amplifier, analog multiplier, precision rectifier, differentiator, integrator etc.
  • To convert voltage to current or current to voltage output of transducer, op-amp is widely used because of high gain amplification, very high input resistance.

IV. Timer IC 555: the most useful application of analog circuit such as timer IC 555 is that it can act as delay circuit, square wave generator, pulse waveform generator etc.

V.  Oscillators: It is used to generate sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal output without any input.

VI. Analog circuits are used to process high power signals like microwave signals, band pass signals. Analog electronics circuits are important in design of stero headset, public addressing system, RF amplifiers for communication system, IC amplifiers for microelectronics and nano electronics.

b)      Things to know to solve problems about analog electronics

  • The basic knowledge of network passive elements such as resistor, inductor and capacitor and active elements such as voltage and current sources.
  • The electronic devices i.e. diode, transistor, RLC composition with their operation should be well known.
  • The fundamental Kirchoff current law (KCL) and Kirchoff voltage law (KVL) should be known.
  • Where it is required to replace any circuit with its equivalent model should be clearly known.
  • The knowledge of linear and non-linear power supply.
  • Pre-defined specifications or numerical values of every circuit elements.
  • One should know how to plot transfer characteristics, output characteristics of any analog circuit in order to precisely complete the solution of problem.

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