IMPORTANCE OF MICROBIOLOGY IN COURSE CURRICULUM
The study of tiny organisms which can be seen only with the help of microscope has gained importance nowadays. They are the first living organism on planet. Initially they are able to withstand high temperature, acidity, and extreme environment conditions. Most of the microorganisms are beneficial and some are harmful. They exhibit a symbiotic relationship with other organisms and are present all over the earth. Some microbes live as normal biota on the surface of skin(Staphylococcus) and intestine(E.coli produces vitamin K) of humans,they prevent the entry of pathogenic microorganisms. Study of microbes help us to exploit beneficial organisms and to diagnosis the disease (tuberculosis,Salmonellosis), caused by microbes and to design drug against pathogenic microorganisms.Isolation of microorganisms and studying their morphological characteristics and biochemical characteristics is useful in their identification. Some microbes causes foodpoisoning diseases. Antibiotic susceptibility test are performed to give appropriate antimicrobial drug to patients. Microbe's virulence can be reduced and it can be used as vaccine to induce immune response in our body. Microbes maintain ecological balance of nutrients such as nitrogen, carbon, sulphur and phosphorous.
They are simple in their structure and organization and easy to grow in large numbers within short time hence used as a model for genetics research. Microbes can be used as the source of nutrients as they can carry out photosynthesis. Algae are the primary producers in the ecological food chain. They are used in waste management of solid waste (composting), sewage waste and to clean oil spills (bioremediation) and to remove toxic pollutant from environment(a Mixture of fungal and bacterial species used for biodegradation). Biomass of microbes used in agriculture as manure. (Anabaena,Rhizobium,Azotrophs) and pesticides(Bacillus thuringiensis). It is exploited in industry to produce vaccines, food such as bread, yoghurt, cheese, sometimes fruiting bodies of mushrooms such as Agaricus, Pleurotus can be grown and consumed as food.It is also used to synthesise alcohol, wine. Bacteria can be engineered using rDNA technology(A specific gene of interest is cut and integrated into plasmid or vector and introduced into host bacteria for multiplication and expression) and used to synthesis medical drugs,hormones (Escherichia coli engineered to synthesis human insulin) and some are used in agriculture.They also produce enzymes which is important for rDNA technology(Taq polymerase). Bacteria are used in the synthesis of amino acids(Clostridium glutamicum).It is also used to synthesis biopolymers which has wide application in tissue engineering and drug delivery. Viruses are used to deliver genes in gene therapy (Retrovirus). Some of the examples for the harmful microbes are given next to this. Bacteria like Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas are infectious which can cause wound infections .
Parasites like Entamoeba and Giardia cause dysentery and gingivitis respectively. Viruses like Polio and HIV are infectious.Fungi like Histoplasma and Candida cause infection like histoplamosis and candidiasis to humans. The study of factors which determines the distribution of disease is called epidemiology. Microbiology is important to know about sterilization(Killing of microbes or making the environment free from microbes) and aseptic techniques in the medicine during surgery and in pharmaceutical industry during drug synthesis. Quality control is important in bio secure industries like poultry and fish industry and in food industry. Water hygiene can be detected with the help of microbiology techniques. Pasteurization is a technique which preserves milk for long time. It is used in the synthesis of probiotics to maintain our health. To save water recently marine algae is synthesized as water droplets in compact shapes. Microbe are used as vector to treat cancer. Microbes can be used as bio war agents,hence we should know about the microbes and their control.
Microbiology has various disciplines such as Microbial Taxonomy (includes types of microorganisms, classification and Phylogenetic relationship),Bacteriology(study of bacteria), Parasitology(study of parasites), Phycology(study of algae), Mycology(study of fungi),Virology(study of viruses), Microbial physiology(metabolism and biochemistry), Microbial genetics(genetic expression, regulation of genes) and their application field includes Medical Microbiology, Food and Industrial microbiology, Environmental microbiology, veterinary microbiology.
Students feel the terminologies are difficult to understand and they need to read many books to get a clear idea of a concept and there is no prescribed book for microbiology. Student need to analyze cases by observing the previous work references to integrate with them and learn. Other than class hours Students need to read on microbiology topics.
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