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Develop a case study showcasing international tourism destination LONDON. The assignment will develop critical thinking, analysis and literacy skills to synthesis/contrast information related to theories.

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According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), tourism is defined as the activity of people traveling from one place for the purpose of business (18%), leisure (62%) or other activities (20%) (Kotler, Bowen, Makens,& Baloglu, 2017, pp. 21). The importance of such activity is often considered as a source of income which in turn contribute to the GDP of nation and strengthens the economic positioning. Particularly, for the London' economic point of view, tourism is a key industry, that offering a significant source of foreign exchange income (Kotler et al, 2017, pp. 21).

The present report is based on the analysis of international tourism destinations "London", thereby highlighting the visitation, attractive destination, the corresponding impact on economy, and analysis of measures relevant to this industry. In addition to this, the scope of analysis is also extended to the issue of policy implications that are being implemented to improve the attractiveness of this industry.

Tourist Visitation

London is considered one of the most popular tourist destinations across the globe, which attracts more than 30 million visitors each year from different parts of the world. Apart from outsiders, London is also a prime tourist destination for people living in other parts of the United Kingdom. According to the report by Powell, & Iankova, (2016), more than 26 million overnight visits are made to London by Britons only (pp. 339-351). The VisitBritain reported that the overseas visit in London has crossed over 40 million for the first time in the year 2018. However, it is expected that the overall visit in 2019 is likely to increase by 4.4%, based on the current market positioning of London-based destinations (Powell et al, 2016, pp. 339-351). The increase in tourism is certainly a beneficial aspect for restaurants, hotels and other tourism services in London. Tourism is considered as one of the most valuable export industries of London, which comprise of tourists from Europe, the United States, and China. In addition to these countries, tourist from India, Australia, and the Gulf market were also found to be increasing by15% in 2018 as compared to the previous years. According to the Anholt-GfK Nation Brands Index (NBI) 2017 report, London, UK has been ranked as the third most visited tourist location across the globe (Pappalepore,&Duignan, 2016, pp. 344-355). The revenue generated from London tourism is approximately 10% of the gross value added the income of this geographical place (Mowforth, & Munt, 2015, pp. 64). Experts believe that in future, tourists will be spending approximately £15 million each year, and this includes packages such as eatery services, transportation, entrance fees, and accommodation charges (Pappalepore et al 2016, pp. 344-355). More than 13% of workers employed in London are also engaged in the tourism sector either directly or indirectly for their source of income (Mowforth et al 2015, pp. 64). Further, in the coming years, new influx of employees was expected to join the tourism sector which reflects the growth of this industry. In this context, support from UK government is also reflective, especially towards the improvement of city profile and renovating the tourist destinations including one woman's, historic building and natural beauty.

Destination attractiveness

London is known as the city of entertainment, historic tradition, genuine architecture, and a business centre. It has been observed that most of the tourists who are visiting London for business purpose, try to find time from their official duties to experience the beauty of the London city (Mowforth et al 2015, pp. 64). Tourist visit here to explore its impressive monuments vibrant culture, and enjoy the theatrical performance associated with the "Western Culture". The primary attractions of London include Buckingham Palace, London Bridge, St. Paul's Cathedral, Big Ben, Tower of London, ZSL London Zoo, London Dungeon, Sea Life aquarium, Madame Tussauds and British museum (Coca-Stefaniak, & Morrison, 2018, pp. 409-412).

According to Caber, & Albayrak, (2016), push and pull factor of satisfaction theory acts as a source to attract tourists (pp. 74-84). The theory is widely accepted for describing travel motivation and tourist behavior. Push factors in tourism are basically those factors which drives a person away from home towards the tourism destination. Pull factors describe the attractive features of the destination. The push-and-pull motives are also termed as ‘wanderlust' by Ramseook-Munhurrun, Naidoo, Seebaluck, & Puttaroo, (2018, pp. 838). In the present case, the push factor which motivates tourists to visit London are its moderate climate condition, geographic factor (frequent and easy access through air travel), economic factor (less than dollar) and psychological factor (relaxation). On the contrary, some of the pull factors include, attractive marketing strategies, cultural heritage, history, and personal perception about the destination. London is known for its cultural heritage in art galleries, museums, opera shows, buildings, architecture, record-breaking musicals in theaters, historic houses and palaces, royal buildings. Some of the examples of historic palaces are Kenwood House, Leighton House, and Hampton Court, which are the main source of attraction.

Impact of tourism

One of the major impacts of tourism in the London is its adverse effect resulting to the environmental issues. The increase in tourism often becomes unsustainable for the environment, which is mediated through effluent from transportation, increase of waste materials (plastic, cloths, and food) on ground, and noise pollution (crowdedness). As a result of the increased crowd, the local flora and fauna are ultimately affected which might disturb (however not significantly) the ecological balance. These adverse impact on the host community stance from the planning stage until the assessment stage of tourism. Further, in order to attract tourists, the visitation sites, restaurants, hotels, rental facilities, and welcome centres, promotes the renovation of infrastructure, which also indirectly pollutes the environment. As a matter of fact, with an increase in the number of tourists, the number of recommendation facilities are also increasing, which damages the natural environment and habitat. For instance, there has been an increase of 45% of the waste level in Cornwall, which is 260 miles away from London. Moreover, an increase in the tourist population results in an increase in traffic (by 21% in 2017), which in turn creates air pollution and noise pollution (Stylidis, & Cherifi, 2018, pp. 55-67). Transportation opted by the tourists also results in overcrowding and traffic jams in London. With the increase in the number of air travel to London, also increases the amount of carbon dioxide emissions to the environment resulting in global warming (Foroudi, Akarsu, Ageeva, Foroudi, and Dennis, 2018, pp. 97-110). Also, as detailed in the report by Maxim, (2019), in order to attract tourists to ZSL London zoo, it is evident that most of the animal habitats are kept forcefully in the location (pp. 1006-1024). They are forced to relocate or to develop a new way of living for public entertainment.

In contrary, tourism also provides numerous benefits to the host destination, especially the economic benefits. The economic impact with the emergence of tourism in London comprises of the employment opportunities in tourist attractions and tourism sector for the local citizens. For example, the London museum has included (more than 200 employees) staff from the local community, which is an economic benefit to the local community. Further, it creates new business opportunities in the tourist locations and benefits the localities. With an increase in tourism, the local infrastructure and services are also developed, to create a positive impact on the local and overseas tourists who come to visit the place. Note that, international tourist expenditure is considered as an export for the host country, London, which is regarded as a great source of income for its economy (Estol, & Font, 2016, pp. 230-241). It is evident that tourism revenue accounts for a large position in the nation's revenue. According to a report, the total tourist expenditure of $56 billion has been spent in London in 2017 (Kotler et al, 2017, pp. 21). An increased tax revenue due to tourism also results in economic growth.

Issue analysis

With the increase in the number of tourists, there has been a considerable decrease in the number of natural resources in the London. Water is one such natural resource that depletes at a steady rate. In order to counterbalance the loss of water, the tourism sector in London has implemented the rainwater collection system as an alternative strategy. It collects rainwater into the storage tanks, which is collected on the roof or other impervious surfaces. These water can be used from non-potable requirements such as washing machines, toilet flushing, house cleaning, car washing, and cooling towers. More than 40% of hotels and restaurants in London have installed a rainwater harvesting system in their infrastructure (Foroudi, et al, 2018, pp. 97-110). The installation of these recycling systems has added an additional cost of 15% towards the plumbing cost as a major part of the renovation. A research study has revealed that the process of rainwater recycling reduces water consumption by 10% (Foroudi, et al, 2018, pp. 97-110). The reuse of rainwater interments the natural water cycle which can otherwise soak into the ground to compensate for the declining level of groundwater. For this reason, it is expected that the use of rainwater harvesting systems can reduce local water stress, as well as reduce the floating risk during high rainfall. One such example of rain water harvesting in London is in the Raphael Hotel. The hotel has converted its car parking cover in the form of rainfall collector, and the collected water directly goes into the storage tank placed in the basement. Three large 500 litre water collection tanks are placed in series in the basement area, which is relatively stable or low in temperature throughout the entire year. The appropriate temperature of the stored water should be less than 12 degrees to avoid any biological activity and potential health risk. However, water inspection individuals regularly check the system and tank through dip testing for identifying any water quality problem (Foroudi, et al, 2018, pp. 97-110).

Transportation development is another approach taken by the government of the UK to provide a seamless transportation service for improving visitors experience. The local tourism sector and transport policymakers have worked closely design transportation infrastructure that can fulfill the requirement of all kinds of travelers. The transportation system should be with synchronized with tourism strategies, so as to make the visit of tourists simpler and hassle-free. In this process, the first approach was taken for building transport infrastructure (train stations) between King's Cross and St. Pancras International to provide visitors a wide range of transportation options for exploring the city of London and beyond. The King's Cross and St Pancras underground station is connected to six underground lines in London, that is, Victoria, metropolitan, circle, Piccadilly, Hammersmith & city, and Northern. It is presently the biggest station interchange in London (Powell, et al, 2016, pp. 339-351). The St. Pancras international also comprised of Eurostar, which connects the UK with other European nations. Another approach in the transportation project is the London bike sharing scheme. In this scheme, several docking stations and bike interchange are assigned in the King's Cross St Pancras station, which makes bike parking easy and secure.

Furthermore, to reduce the impact of carbon footprint generated through air travel, the UK tourism sector has also introduced High-Speed rail service from London to Paris, which is presently giving a tough competition to air services. Again "Legible London" is another strategy in the London transportation project designed for the pedestrians (Caber, et al, 2016, pp. 74-84). It is basically a pedestrian wayfinding system that provides a set of maps with distinctive sign features that encourage and motivate the visitors to cover the entire city by foot. For improving Travelers convenience, London tourism sector has also adopted smart cards system in public transport, which is a form of integrated transport ticketing. The use of the smart card is convenient and cheaper for outsider tourists, thus encourage them to use public transport and minimize road traffic. 

Policy implication

The policy introduced by the government in the tourism sector is about utilizing the available resources effectively and sustainably, and gain maximum profit out of it. Two major policies implemented by the UK government in the tourism industry are in the year 2011 and 2016 (Estol, et al, 2016, pp. 230-241). First, the government of the UK published a tourism policy document in March 2011 by addressing some changes in the tourism industry. The policy was proposed during the time period of restructuring the public sector in the United Kingdom, which was due to the global economic crisis. It aims at the involvement of the private sector in the tourism sector and reduces its dependence on public funding. During the period of an economic slowdown in the UK, tourism has contributed significant value towards its growth. The three primary strategies implemented in the policy include:

- Funding the most aspiring marketing campaign attract tourists to the UK for 4 years from 2011. The marketing campaign costs 100-million-pound school founded by the government as well as the private sector.

- Maximizing the proportion of the tourists residence in London, than any other abroad location.

- Developing the productivity of the tourism sector with the intention to make it one of the top five most effective and competitive tourist economy on a global scale.

In addition to the tourism policy 2011, a planning policy "Tourism Action plan" has also been incorporated in the UK tourism sector. This policy was introduced on August 26, 2016, that includes initiatives to help London in improving its major tourism destinations and attract more visitors than ever. The government has implemented the policy by considering the (i) tourism landscape, (ii) common sense regulation, (iii) skills, and (iv) transportation system (Foroudi, et al, 2018, pp. 97-110). The primary objective of this policy includes:

- Easy travel facility with the help of the GREAT tourism rail offer. Visitors are now able to book their rail itineraries around easily.

- The seasonal nature of the tourism industry is addressed in this policy through an apprenticeship scheme which facilitates the training of 16 to 18 months with regular breaks (Estol, et al, 2016, pp. 230-241).

For successful implementation of the policy, the government has made an announcement of £40 million from the Discovery England fund to be invested in VisitBritain and Visit England (Kotler et al, 2017, pp. 21).


In summary, the report has illustrated the concept of international tourism in the selected case example of tourism destination ‘London'. Important concepts associated with tourist visitation, destination attractiveness, impact of tourism, key issues and policy implication in London tourism have been discussed. It can be inferred that tourism is an integral part of London's economy which provides job opportunities and business ideas. Despite some negative impact of tourism on the environment, it has a huge positive impact on its economy as well as its local heritage. However, the UK government need to introduce exciting offers related to air travel, accommodation, and tourist spot in London to attract visitors in the off-season period. This approach will be effective to reduce the fluctuation in the tourism economy and maintain balanced economy throughout the year.

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