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BUACC5930 Accounting Concepts And Practices, Federation University, Australia


Question 1: Transurban is a company that primarily builds Toll roads in Australia and overseas.

Using the 2018 Transurban annual report to compare the financial results of the Company between 2017 and 2018.

What other information would you need to make an assessment of Transurban?

Answer: Financial performance analysis: Trans-Urban is selected for this study where the researcher will analyse the financial performance of this company by assessing the two year period's financial statements of an entity. This is an integrated transportation company whose primary business activities consists of the development, operating, maintenance and financing of the toll roads assets and also to manage the relationships with the users and the governments. The main motive of this company is to ensure the quality of the roads as toll fees taken from the travellers who ride on the roads by ensuring its overall safety. CCTV cameras are also installed on the roads for the safety of the workers on the toll cabins and also to track suspicious activities occurred on the roads.

The brief financial summary about the revenues and the profits of this company will give a brief idea about the financial performable of an entity in the entire transportation industry. The total revenue booked by this entity is $2249 billion which shows an increase from the previous year's figure. Profit arises from the ordinary business activities consists of $209 million to $468 million which is an increment of 124% from the last year's performance shows positive efforts of an entity in achieving this income. Earnings before depreciation and amortization costs comprise to $1649 million which signifies an increase of 8.1% which reflects the increasing performance of an entity as every component of the income of this business shows increment from the last year's performance. This denotes the hard-working nature of an entity owner in achieving this position by encountering the entire troubles and the issues in doing the business. Earning after tax is $1670 which is higher than the earning before tax that shows the less burden of tax imposed in an entity as the company has a good relationship with the government. The government also supports this company in achieving its targets as this entity is performing its social objectives by achieving sustainable development goals. The net profit attributable to the shareholder is $485 million denoting an increase of %102.5% and the net profit excluding the significant items comprises of $56 million showing an increment of 111.5% from the earlier period's data and the figures.

Other data depicting the performance of the company in terms of daily traffic of the travellers to the toll plaza, toll revenue increment, Erasing before interest, tax and depreciation and free cash flow arise from the business are the criteria's in analysing the current performance of an entity. The average daily the traffic of the people at the toll plaza shows an increase of 2.2%, toll revenue showing an increment of 8.7% with $2340 million income, EBITDA showing increase of 8.9% except on element which is showing decrement. The free cash flows arise from the business shows a decrease of 0.5% comprising of $1215 million decreases this is due for the sudden occurrence of any costs in an entity which has reduced the cash flows in an entity.

Financial highlights of this business will give a reader a different perspective to assess the current performance of an entity by comparing it with the past financial results. To know how an entity has excelled in the one year period and what is the reason held responsible for its increase. The firm witness financial close on the west gate tunnel project in Melbourne Australia. Acquire A25 toll roads plaza and bridge in Montreal California to increase the sources of the revenue. Another project named as 395 express lanes project in the greater Washington area reached the financial closure due to lack of funding needs. The Company raises a debt of $4.8 billion for meeting the funding requirements of the current business in the financial year 2018 an entity runs out of business or this debt will utilize in meeting the large scale project of an enterprise. $ 1.9 billion funds raised by issuing equity shares through an entitlement offer to secure enough wealth in the form of equity shareholders to fund the continuous business profits as the efficiency of an entity is declining from period to period as the firm is not able to survive only on the basis of the profits earned by an entity as these profits will utilize in paying off all kinds of costs incurred in an entity.





(In $million)


(In $million)

Sales revenue




Net Profit




Net Profit ratio

Net profit/Sales


= 13.07


= 7.047

Current asset




Current liabilities







Net Profit



Table 1 Ratios

Net Profit Ratio.jpg

Table 2 Net Profit Ratio

The profitability of the business is determined with the help of this issue where net profit reflects the amount of profit after meeting all the expenses and the costs incurred in an entity. This amount reflects the amount of revenue after paying off the taxes out of the income received in an enterprise (Podile, Rao and Sree, 2019). The net profit of the company of 2017 and 2018 shows a declining trend from the previous year. The net profit of the previous period shows a higher amount as compared to the current period. The profitability of the company is declining in the current period which shows the burden of taxation imposed on an entity as this needs to be improving with the passage of time.




Current ratio



Current Ratio.jpg

Table 3 Current Ratio

The current ratio isan important source of liquidity of an enterprise which shows the proportion between the current asset and the current liabilities in an entity.The liquidity performance of an entity declines from one period to another (Fernandez Castillo, et al., 2018). The decrease in the liquidity performancefrom one period to another due to low current assets as the burden of the current liabilities imposes in an entity which the company is not able to meet the same.

Question 2: Explain how Trans urban is meeting the UN sustainable development goals and justify the initiatives.

Answer: There are nine UN sustainable development goals relevant for Trans-urban in accomplishing all their goals and the objectives within a stipulated time period. This will comprises of good health and well-being, gender equality, affordable and clean energy, decent work and economic growth, industry, innovation and infrastructure, sustainable cities and communities, responsible consumption and production, climate action ad partnership for the goals. An entity emphasizes on meeting all these sustainable gaols to satisfy the needs of all the internal as well as external stakeholders of an entity (Griggs, Stafford-Smith, et al., 2013).

Sustainable development goal 3 good health and well-being- Great is a major concern for all the individuals which helps an individual in increasing its work productivity and the overall productivity of the business for whom an individual is working (Marmot and Bell, 2018). An entity according to those goals should care about all their employees by keeping the health of their personnel on the topmost position by doing for the well-being of their employees to sustain them in the entity for a longer span of time.


There are various characteristics of the trans-urban company who are following this sustainable development goals in different ways mentioned below:

Employees and supplier's well-being and safety- The vision of this company is to reduce the total ratio of mortality due to the communicable diseases by one third till 2030 by introducing health programs to get rid of this issue (Nugent et al., 2018). The prevention and health treatment program to introduce by its entity in fulfilling their vision.

This initiative of the company for introducing the well-being program for helping all its personnel in safeguarding from this issue will increase its image in front of the community users. The respects for the enterprise will also increase in front of the government as an entity is meeting its social welfare goals too. Tran's urban launches mental health first aid officers for taking care of this program but there are no such target sets for meeting this goal by an entity till now (Blomstedt, Bhutta, et al., 2018).

Road safety- For meeting the this goals this entity creates long term goal for this thing that by 220, the ratio of death occurred on the road accidents will get decreases by launching strict road traffic rules to wear helmets and safety gear before riding a car or bile on the roads. As lack of safety gears, then death rate in the road accidents gets an increase day by day which needs to regulate to lower down this number.

This the action of reducing the road accidents taken by Trans-urban as 3 accidents have occurred on the roads of trans-urban which reflect its weaknesses in road safety. Talking about this initiative of this entity that due to the occurrence of the fatalities on the roads of trans-urban, an entity has taken responsibility not top cannot a similar mistake in the future by saving people's lives through their action. The initiatives of the company for the year financial year 2018 includes road safety framework, road design and optimization to decreases the risks related to road safety, road safety action plans, Neura partnership and road safety awareness campaigns. The basic reason for occurring road accidents is due to the lack of awareness as people are not aware of the consequences of not following the safety gears while driving.

Sustainable development goal 5 Gender Equality- In today's world, men and women are working together in the corporate world as the difference between girl and boy has decreased but this problem has eliminated from its root. In this society, still, the male is given more preference as compared to the female. These sustainable goals help an entity in promoting this concept by introducing plans for the suitability of both the genders equally.

Avoiding workplace discrimination- the aim of the trans-urban is to avoid all kinds of discrimination takes places at the workplace by giving equal opportunity to both the genders equally without giving any differential benefit to one gender. The motive of this is to fight against discrimination in the company about girls and women. Introducing legal frameworks for promoting gender equality and non-discrimination act (Kim, Kim and Qian, 2018). This initiative of an entity is appreciable as the initiatives of the company includes several other things such as encouraging females in the recruitment process, increasing women leadership on the business, flexible work schedules, giving parental leaves, supporting upcoming female engineers, giving women scholarships to make their career in the engineering field, and liaising with the western Sydney university. Aim of an entity behind all of these is to support the woman in meeting all their needs and desires without affecting their dreams.


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