In 1969 a group of AT&T developed a computer Operating System at Bell Labs. Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson are often considered as the inventors of UNIX. UNIX name was a pun based on Multics, an earlier system. UNIX became world's first OS written in C language in 1974. Different universities, companies and individuals have developed many extensions and versions of UNIX and have developed into a large freeware product.
Importance of UNIX Programming
The Unix OS is a group of programs that works as a link between the user and the computer. Those computer programs that coordinate all the details of the computer's internal and allocate system resources are called kernel or the operating system.
A command line interpreter, Shell, is used to interact or communicate with the kernel. Shell translates user commands and converts those commands into kernel understandable language. UNIX as an OS provides many important features to a user.
Multitasking Environment - Unix OS allows users to run multiple programs simultaneously.
Solaris UNIX, HP UNIX, BSD and AIX are a few examples of different variants of UNIX. Similarly Linux is also a freely available variant of UNIX.
UNIX is a multiuser system as several users can use it at the same time.
Why students should prefer to join UNIX programming course?
UNIX is important because it revolutionized the computer and its usage back in the time it was launched, and it's still changing everything. Before UNIX, a computer can only be used with an OS from a vendor for example if you bought a computer from a vendor, it came with that vendor's OS - and nothing could have been changed. Users were locked in with it.
An IBM was locked in with a proprietary IBM operating system and a DEC user - likewise, with a proprietary DEC OS. Cross licensing of operating systems was extremely rare and expensive (both in terms of support and initial cost). UNIX introduced the concept of cross-platform standardization. UNIX allowed programs to be recompiled with different architectures and it worked for most of the cases. Changes that were required to run a program on different program wasn't needed anymore if UNIX was running on the hardware platform.
Today we have UNIX running on distributed clusters, massive mainframes, on tablets, on Apples, on PCs, on smart phones, in automobiles, on wristwatches.
Skills required for completing UNIX programming course assignment
Main concepts that are required to complete UNIX programming course assignment are-
Users: - User needs to create a user account consisting of a username and password to use a UNIX system.
Home directory: - To enable users to access the disk storage a home directory is assigned to the username.
Groups: - List of username is called groups. Groups help in assignment of permissions to different users all at once. Username belongs to a group called default group.
Default shell: - Program that manages user command line sessions and login is called default shell.
Shared Resources: - Every resource that one user can access on a local system can also be accessed from remote systems using a dedicated network. Editing, sharing files and running software are some examples of operations that can be done. Even UNIX system's display can be changed by a remote system. This is why UNIX is said to be a networked operating environment.
Permissions: - User and group are the two owners of every resource in UNIX. Sensitive files can be secured by changing permissions. This also avoids any accidental deletion of important data.
Difficulties encountered while writing UNIX programming assignment
Permissions, Shared Resource, Default Shell and groups are some basic concepts that one should have deep understanding about before writing a quality UNIX programming assignment. Students often face difficulty with Shell scripting. Lack of understanding of how shell scripting works and experience of using shell scripting creates a lot of problems for the users. Students also find it hard to use programs in UNIX. Program in UNIX is a set of commands that interacts with the kernel to provide the environment and perform the certain operations. A program can be: built-in shell command, or a source compiled, object code file, an executable shell file, known as a shell script. Students also face problems interacting with the kernel through the shell. System programs and its paths should also be known. They are generally located in places like /usr/ucb, /bin, /usr/local/bin, etc.
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