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Fluid Mechanics

Importance of Fluid Mechanics in Academic Curriculum

Fluid mechanic is a since which study fluids either at rest fluid statics or in motion fluid dynamics and their effects on solids bodies or other fluids.

Fluid mechanic is a part of general mechanic so the rolls and concepts of general mechanic applied on liquids instead of rigid bodies.

**Basic concepts of Fluid Mechanics**** **

There are two types of fluids: liquids and gases, liquids almost in-compressible and the surface depended on the gravity and the container occupied but the gas has no definite volume.

**Property fluid mechanic**: To know fluid mechanic it's useful to know property fluid mechanic: density, viscosity, temperature, pressure, specific volume, specific weight, specific gravity.

Density ρ: the density is a mass per volume so the measurement is kilogram per cubic meter and may be can be used other units measurement the density for water is 1000 kg/m^{3}.

Viscosity: viscosity is the property which determines the resistance of fluid to shear stress so this amount is so different between liquid and gas.

Temperature: temperature is the property used to determine the hotness or coldness of a fluid the measurements used is C^{o} Celsius but in fluid mechanic and thermodynamics the Kelvin (k) is used and equal the value temperature C^{o}+ 373.

Pressure: the pressure is property determines by the force per area and the measurements Newton per square meter N/m^{2}.

Specific volume: the specific volume is the volume of one kilogram and the measurements is m^{3}/kg.

Specific gravity: the specific gravity is the fluid density per a standard reference fluid the measurement is no dimension.

Specific heat capacity: the specific heat capacity is the heat energy required to increase the temperature one degree for a unit mass so there are two heat capacity c_{v} constant volume and c_{p} constant pressure so the measurement is kj/kg.k^{o}.

**Definition of fluid mechanics:** the fluid mechanic is applied mechanics that is considered the statics and dynamics of liquids and gases. The studying of the fluids is based upon the fundamental laws of applied mechanics that relate to the conservation of mass, energy and momentum. The subject parts out into sub-disciplines such as aerodynamics, hydraulics, geophysical fluid dynamics and bio-fluid mechanics.** **

**Fluid**: The fluid is a materiel that may flow, so the fluid continuously change their positions relative to surrounded conditions. Fluids do not offer any lasting resistance to the displacement of one layer over another when a shear force is applied. If a fluid is at rest, then no shear forces can exist in it, but solids can resist shear forces while at rest. To be known, if a shear force is applied to a fluid it will cause flow. A difference between solids and fluids is that a solid has a constant shape whereas a fluid owes its shape take the shape of container.

**Continuum concept: **the continuum concept differences in fluid so molecules comprising a fluid determine the observed properties of the fluid and for an absolutely complete analysis, the fluid should be studied at the molecular scale so continuously varying and may be different from surrounded molecules at any instant of time.

**Dimensions and units: **as above mentioned in the property fluid mechanic there are physical quantities have measurements and there are units for scaling them different from system to other system English units and system international units.

**Importance fluid mechanic**

Fluid mechanics is a fundamental and solution role in engineering education. The studying and researches exercises on fluid mechanics are part of the standard curriculum for a wide range of engineering disciplines, such as energy and process engineering, mechanical and plant engineering, , shipbuilding, civil engineering, agriculture, environmental engineering, food technology etc. The basic concepts of fluid mechanics are also an indispensable part of the teaching programmer in vocational education and training for many technical professions. Fluid Mechanics is going over other engineering disciplines. Consequently we have to consider the relationship between these disciplines. In order to describe and understand fluid mechanical and processes we need to go back to knowledge and skills from other engineering fields. Thermodynamics occupied a role in many fluidic processes like the flow of compressible fluids or operational procedures of fluid energy machines fundamentals of engineering mechanics like conservation of energy, friction, momentum or angular momentum explain many fluid mechanical states flow through layers of materials, the storage capacity of soils and open channel flow are topics from hydraulic engineering computing and information technologies offer possibilities of computational flow simulation knowledge of design engineering is necessary for the functional and energy oriented design of fluid energy machines.

Fluid mechanics relates to other engineering disciplines (engineering mechanics, fluid engineer mechanics, computational simulation methods, hydraulic engineering, thermodynamics construction of plant and machinery, civil engineering) for example Civil engineering fluid mechanics covers a wide variety of problems that practicing civil engineers must understand and solve, like: the flow of water in underground aquifers that supply water for irrigation or drinking, the disposal of waste in rivers, estuaries and coastal areas, transport of sediments in rivers, stop bank and spillway design, nutrient mixing in lakes and reservoirs, wave action on harbors and beaches, flood prediction, rainfall monitoring, design of urban storm water and sewage systems.

There are more about fluid mechanics it is the essential since for space technology, designing automotive vehicles and more...

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