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NANOTECHNOLOGY

The word "nanotechnology" is used extensively to define the sciences and they apply at the nanoscale level, that is, extremely small measures, "nanos" that Allow to work and manipulate molecular structures and their atoms. In summary it would lead to the possibility of making materials and machines from the rearrangement of atoms and

Molecules

Note: Recall that a nanometer is equivalent to a scale of one meter

(1 nm = 1 x 10-9 m). Some equivalences of the nanometer are shown in Table 1.1.

Table 1.1. Other nanometer equivalences

• Millimeter: 1 mm = 1 000 000 nm

• Micrometer: 1 μm = 1000 nm

• Angstrom: 1 Å = 1/10 nm

• Pico meter: 1 pm = 1/1000 nm

The development of this discipline takes place from the proposals of Richard Feynman (Brief Chronology - history of nanotechnology), Feynman (figure 1.1), who is considered the father Of the "Nanoscience", Nobel Prize in Physics, who in 1959 proposed to manufacture products in base A rearrangement of atoms and molecules. The great physicist wrote an article that analyzed How do computers work with small ones? Power and carry amazing speeds.

The best definition of nanotechnology is this: Nanotechnology is the study, design, Creation, synthesis, manipulation and application of functional materials, apparatus and systems to Through the control of matter at the nanoscale, and the exploitation of phenomena and properties of Matter to nanoscale. When you manipulate matter to the very minute scale of atoms and molecules, it shows Phenomena and properties. Therefore, scientists use nanotechnology To create novel and inexpensive materials, devices and systems with unique properties The nanotechnological revolution is associated, on the one hand, with "molecular Viability would have a huge impact on our lives, on economies, on countries and on Society in the not-too-distant future. Among the effects, they emphasize their potential impacts In medicine, biology, the environment, computing, construction ... Today The main practical advances already occur in some fields: nanoparticles, nanotubes ... Progress - more questioned - in nanorobots and self- Controversy among the experts ... What is no doubt is that the revolution has begun. Y Also the debate on its benefits and risks.

Every year the private and public sectors around the world invest for basic research In nanotechnology between 4 and 5 billion dollars. In the United States, Million dollars per year, Korea invests almost 200 million Dollars per year, Taiwan and China more than one hundred million and it is expected that by 2015 investment Reach 1 trillion (1012) dollars. This makes nanotechnology the project Largest publicly-funded scientist and the Nanosciences to increase investments. The number of articles and patents related to Nanotechnology increases day by day Nanotechnology is one of the most promising areas of modern science and technology with A great economic and social impact. It works with extremely small elements Like a millionth part of a millimeter and even more. For this, the human being has had to Develop techniques that allow him to even manipulate matter atom by atom.

1.1. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES: 

The field of nanotechnology, and in particular that of carbon nanotubes (CNT's) is a Field, (were discovered in 1991), which can offer solutions in fields Multisectoral and multidisciplinary and which has important implications in Science and Technology. Its extraordinary properties ensure a revolution in the ways in which materials and The products will be obtained, being the nanoscale research of interest for industries Such as: production of ceramics, metallurgy, thin films, electronics, materials Magnetic, optical devices, catalysts, energy storage and biomedicine.

 1.2. APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY:  

 1.The trend is on the upswing, with $ 430 million invested globally in 1997, and In 2006 they were 12.4 billion dollars. It is estimated that the sale of products based Of nanotechnology to reach $ 2.6 trillion by 2015. In just a decade, Have more than 3,000 products recognized and multiple are being created worldwide.

2.- Wide field of action.- Due to its nature, nanotechnology applies in different Areas with a great versatility of applications. The above makes it easy to find a branch that Can satisfy different tastes and interests of an entrepreneur or investor.

3.- Increased quality of life.- Great amount of advances in nanotechnology based their Studies in the increase of the quality of life and in how to favor the environment. The Manipulation of matter at this level allows to create solutions for the main problems Environmental, health, construction, energy, etc., placing nanotechnology as the Industry with greater projection in social and economic impact.

4. - Investment in the future. - The opportunities that open daily speak of a constant Innovation and evolution; therefore, the investments made today are considered Future investments. Nanotechnology is an industry that every day discovers new ways of being applied and therefore of creating new products. 

5. - Innovative products and multiple benefits.- Thanks to the nature of nanotechnology, Recent applications and products created from it often have solutions Innovations to previously unresolved problems, or to deliver better results with a Level of precision or longer duration. Talking about a nanotechnology-based product is talking of "smart" solutions. Experts in economics and business have already stated it in previous dates; the figures around Investment in the industry, new research centers, Study, institutes, etc., are just a sample of the momentum that grows day by day. Nowadays, the "nano-products" are already diverse in specialized stores as well as in Accessible and the same everyday advertising.

IMORTANCE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN THE ACADEMIC CURRICULUM

Nanotechnology refers to the study of matter on an atomic level. Matter is defined as anything that has mass and occupies space and mostly consists of atoms. Atoms are formed from the combination of protons, electrons and neutrons. Combinations of atoms form a molecule whereas combinations of molecules form a compound. A nanometre is said to be a billionth of one metre. This is about the width of three to four atoms.

It is important for nanotechnology to be incorporated into the academic curriculum. This is because its use could be key in improving the efficiency and quality of life. It would offer better quality and safer products that would be used in all aspects of life including but not limited to our households, in sports and even in the field of medicine. This would significantly impact all areas of our society and would lead to a better future and improved efficiency in all areas of life.

In the field of medicine scientists are researching into the use of nanotechnology to deliver medicine directly into diseased cells. This would prevent healthy cells from being faltered by effects if the drugs and thus offer increased chances of recovery while maintaining integrity of the patient'slife. Nanoparticles could be used to deliver drugs to certain injured tissues. Nanoparticles can also be used to deliver a vaccine into the body and thus trigger a stronger immune response

Scientists are also developing the use of nanoparticles in food. This would help in ensuring safety of food and also increase health benefits of food in terms of nutrients provided by food. Nanoparticles could be incorporated into packaging of food to prevent bacterial contamination thus rendering the foods fit for consumption with. There would also be sensors that would be able to detect contaminates in food and this would help prevent mass infection of populations.

This technology could also be used in electronics whereby devices are lighter, faster and also more efficient while reducing power consumption. Technology would be made available to all at reduced prices and higher performance.

Nanoparticles are also being used to offer solutions for decontaminating water. Many water sources are polluted by industrial and chemical wastes and scientists believe that by use of nanoparticles, this water would be made safe to drink. The nanoparticles would render the chemicals in the water harmless.

Nanoparticles are also being incorporated into the world of sports. Sporting equipment made from nanoparticles would be stronger and more efficient.

Nanotechnology can also have a big impact on the environment. Nano sensors would make pollution detection easier. Stronger and lighter materials for transportation would reduce fuel consumption.

Nonetheless some of the problems that students might face in using nanotechnology include the fact that there are more questions than answers since the subject is still up for broad discussion. We still have a long way to in understand the science of nanotechnology.There is also the need to figure out how to mass produce Nano sized products

Instruments are still being designed in order to assess the effects of exposure to nanoparticles. This would include tools that would assess the risk to human life and the environment.

In order to solve some of these problems resources should be pulled in order to identify exposure to and analyse the risk of engineered nanomaterial.

WHO INVENTED NANOTECHNOLOGY?

Richard Feynman is believed to be the origin of nanotechnology. Nonetheless use of nanotechnology can be traced to as early as the 9th century is Mesopotamia. Based on research, nanoparticles were used to create a glittering effect on the surface of pots.

Richard Feynman an American physicist then later came to describe a process where individual atoms and molecules can be manipulated .He described this as 'There is plenty of room in the bottom'. Thereafter different scholars took to the role of performing more research. It was not until the 2000s that public awareness was made as regards to this subject and nanotechnology was applied in various commercial uses.

Some of the other historic names in understanding the concepts of nanotechnology include K. Eric Drexler. He is accredited as the founder of the field of molecular technology and he published a paper of nanotechnology in 1981. Nonetheless he had not been aware of a Japanese scientist Norio Taniguchi who was the first to use the term nanotechnology in a conference in 1974.

Nano science and nanotechnology apply use of extremely small particles and are spread across various fields of science including but not limited to chemistry, biology and physics. A Nano scale is what is used as a scale of measurement for nanometres .It is generally referred for particles between 1 to 100 nanometres. In order to view particles at this scale very powerful microscopes have to be used. A single strand of human hair is said to be 60,000 nanometres in width.

An example of how nanoparticles from different materials have been incorporated into daily use is the nanoparticles from gold which have been used to improve the speed of computers.They have also been incorporated into paint to produce intense colour and make it more durable and they are also beginning to be used in the fight to treat cancer.

Although there is still a lot of research to be done in the field of nanotechnology, it promises a lot of potential in regards to improving the quality of life in future.

Hopefully this article has been of help in trying to shed some light into the exciting field of nanotechnology.

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